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Stephanie J. Jacobs, Ailie J. E. Gallant, and Nigel J. Tapper

conditions of soil moisture affect the modeling of urban environments by influencing the surface layer meteorological behavior ( Husain et al. 2014 ; Jacobson 1999 ). Our research simulates the 28–30 January 2009 heat wave using three different methods of initializing soil moisture: one long coupled spinup simulation, one short spinup with wetter initial conditions, and one short spinup with drier initial conditions. We determine whether improving the accuracy of soil moisture influences the modeling of

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Thomas Loridan, C. S. B. Grimmond, Brian D. Offerle, Duick T. Young, Thomas E. L. Smith, Leena Järvi, and Fredrik Lindberg

performance in simulating the main components of the surface energy balance in urban areas (SEB; Oke 1987 ). The Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) of Grimmond and Oke (2002) is by design one of the simplest models available. The parameterization of storage heat (Δ Q S ) belongs to the category of empirical models as defined by Masson (2006) , as it uses observed relations between net all-wave radiation ( Q *) and surface components, which are combined based on their

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Chong Shen, Xiaoyang Chen, Wei Dai, Xiaohui Li, Jie Wu, Qi Fan, Xuemei Wang, Liye Zhu, Pakwai Chan, Jian Hang, Shaojia Fan, and Weibiao Li

model (BEP) ( Martilli et al. 2002 ), and a simple building energy model (BEM) ( Salamanca and Martilli 2010 ) linked to BEP. The WRF coupled with UCM (WRF/UCM) has been widely used to study the effects of urbanization processes, including the urban heat island effect, urban air quality, and so on. Some researchers have evaluated the simulation of meteorological factors and chemical pollutants by different urban canopy schemes in Athens ( Martilli et al. 2003 ), Texas ( Lee et al. 2011 ), Houston

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Brian V. Smoliak, Peter K. Snyder, Tracy E. Twine, Phillip M. Mykleby, and William F. Hertel

areas ( Oke 1995 ). In this sense, mobile traverses tend to trade increased spatial information for decreased temporal information ( Oke 1973 ). Cooperative observing networks coordinated by government agencies may be capable of resolving the UHI ( Hausfather et al. 2013 ) but are susceptible to data inhomogeneity ( Wu et al. 2005 ). Dedicated and highly controlled urban meteorological networks (UMN) composed of fixed meteorological sensors are a relatively recent development and are capable of

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Robert K. Kaufmann, Karen C. Seto, Annemarie Schneider, Zouting Liu, Liming Zhou, and Weile Wang

precipitation in the Pearl River Delta of China with satellite-derived measures of annual urban extent (1988–96) and monthly climate data from 16 local meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of the relationship among precipitation, temperature, and urban land use in concentric buffers around meteorological stations indicates that there is a causal relationship from temporal and spatial patterns of urban land use to temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation that may reduce rainfall during the dry

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Dennis Finn, Kirk L. Clawson, Roger G. Carter, Jason D. Rich, and K. Jerry Allwine

. 2005 ). This included a major program of meteorological measurements for understanding mean and turbulent flow conditions in the urban boundary layer, a major program of tracer concentration measurements for tracking the movement and dispersion of a pollutant in this environment, and a modeling effort designed to improve the ability to predict the movement and dispersion of toxic plumes in urban environments using the extensive meteorological and tracer concentration database generated. Both

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Indumathi Jeyachandran, Steven J. Burian, and Stephen W. Stetson

1. Introduction Mesoscale meteorological codes and transport and dispersion models are increasingly being applied in urban areas. Representing urban terrain characteristics in the models is critical for accurate predictions of wind flow, energy exchange, heating and cooling, and airborne contaminant concentrations. Urbanization of the models has introduced urban canopy parameterizations into the codes to simulate drag, momentum, and radiation trapping effects ( Brown 2000 ). Many research and

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Yukio Akai, Takao Kanzaki, Akiro Shimota, and Yoichi Ichikawa

Komae City in parallel with RASS observations, which enabled the detection of the urban heat island phenomenon. In the winter of 2000, measurement of temperature profiles in the Tokyo metropolitan area using the mobile RASS and radiosondes was carried out in order to understand urban meteorological conditions. 2. Results Observations of the mobile RASS were conducted at Oi Wharf in Tokyo during the end of February 2000. Table 1 shows the mobile RASS parameters. Radiosondes were also used to

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C. Georgakis, M. Santamouris, and G. Kaisarlis

, noise, and pollution were used to assess the potential for natural ventilation of buildings located in the urban region of Athens ( Ghiaus et al. 2006 ). Air temperatures were measured by means of the mobile meteorological station of the University of Athens inside five different urban street canyons, at four height levels. The five real-state experimental sites were Dervenion canyon (case A), which is oriented with the long axis in a NNW–SSE direction (33° from real north counterclockwise

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Kai Wang, Hong Ye, Feng Chen, Yongzhu Xiong, and Cuiping Wang

the urbanization effect played an important role in the decreasing DTR, especially during the solar brightening period. Urbanization alters the land use–cover and emits anthropogenic aerosols, which largely influence the local climate. The urban heat island shows a higher mean temperature in urban areas, and the DTR is commonly expected to decrease with urbanization. This urbanization impact has been estimated by comparing urban and rural observations ( Gallo et al. 1999 ; Ren et al. 2008

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