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HaiBo Hu

recognizable. In the research, storm frequency of a certain intensity is derived from the meteorological data, and its spatial distribution is plotted in a geographic information systems to determine the spatial variation and changes in storm hazards that are modified by urban-enhanced rainfall. Furthermore, the temporal changes in these hazards, which are influenced by the combination of climate change and urban-induced rainfall, are also analyzed by using a lognormal distribution model. An improved

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Stephanie J. Jacobs
,
Ailie J. E. Gallant
, and
Nigel J. Tapper

conditions of soil moisture affect the modeling of urban environments by influencing the surface layer meteorological behavior ( Husain et al. 2014 ; Jacobson 1999 ). Our research simulates the 28–30 January 2009 heat wave using three different methods of initializing soil moisture: one long coupled spinup simulation, one short spinup with wetter initial conditions, and one short spinup with drier initial conditions. We determine whether improving the accuracy of soil moisture influences the modeling of

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Thomas Loridan
,
C. S. B. Grimmond
,
Brian D. Offerle
,
Duick T. Young
,
Thomas E. L. Smith
,
Leena Järvi
, and
Fredrik Lindberg

performance in simulating the main components of the surface energy balance in urban areas (SEB; Oke 1987 ). The Local-scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) of Grimmond and Oke (2002) is by design one of the simplest models available. The parameterization of storage heat (Δ Q S ) belongs to the category of empirical models as defined by Masson (2006) , as it uses observed relations between net all-wave radiation ( Q *) and surface components, which are combined based on their

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Ping Yang
,
Guoyu Ren
, and
Weidong Liu

. Other studies were also restricted to an outline description of the UHI or to a single season by using data from only urban–rural station pairs. The main reason for this contradiction is the insufficiency of observations, especially the limited routine meteorological observations. AWSs were not deployed over mainland China until the end of the 1990s, and the countrywide installations and applications of AWSs at national meteorological stations were completed only by ~2004. Since then, a huge number

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Shiguang Miao
,
Fei Chen
,
Margaret A. LeMone
,
Mukul Tewari
,
Qingchun Li
, and
Yingchun Wang

cities as a result of differences in urban fabric (materials, morphology), emissions, and prevailing meteorological and climatic conditions. The Greater Beijing metropolitan area, China, one of the 10 largest megacities in the world with a population of more than 10 million, has experienced a rapid urbanization in the last 20 years. Such urban expansion, with increasing built-up areas and human activities, results in significant modifications in the underlying surface properties and atmospheric

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Chong Shen
,
Xiaoyang Chen
,
Wei Dai
,
Xiaohui Li
,
Jie Wu
,
Qi Fan
,
Xuemei Wang
,
Liye Zhu
,
Pakwai Chan
,
Jian Hang
,
Shaojia Fan
, and
Weibiao Li

model (BEP) ( Martilli et al. 2002 ), and a simple building energy model (BEM) ( Salamanca and Martilli 2010 ) linked to BEP. The WRF coupled with UCM (WRF/UCM) has been widely used to study the effects of urbanization processes, including the urban heat island effect, urban air quality, and so on. Some researchers have evaluated the simulation of meteorological factors and chemical pollutants by different urban canopy schemes in Athens ( Martilli et al. 2003 ), Texas ( Lee et al. 2011 ), Houston

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Brian V. Smoliak
,
Peter K. Snyder
,
Tracy E. Twine
,
Phillip M. Mykleby
, and
William F. Hertel

areas ( Oke 1995 ). In this sense, mobile traverses tend to trade increased spatial information for decreased temporal information ( Oke 1973 ). Cooperative observing networks coordinated by government agencies may be capable of resolving the UHI ( Hausfather et al. 2013 ) but are susceptible to data inhomogeneity ( Wu et al. 2005 ). Dedicated and highly controlled urban meteorological networks (UMN) composed of fixed meteorological sensors are a relatively recent development and are capable of

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Shiguang Miao
,
Fei Chen
,
Qingchun Li
, and
Shuiyong Fan

; Jaurequi and Romales 1996 ; Shepherd et al. 2002 ). Bornstein and Lin (2000) analyzed data from a surface meteorological network around Atlanta, Georgia, to show that the urban heat island (UHI) induced a convergence zone that initiated storms during the summer of 1996. Many modeling studies have documented that urban areas can enhance surface convergence and rainfall downwind from the city (e.g., Hjemfelt 1982 ; Craig and Bornstein 2002 ; Rozoff et al. 2003 ). On the other hand, precipitation

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Robert K. Kaufmann
,
Karen C. Seto
,
Annemarie Schneider
,
Zouting Liu
,
Liming Zhou
, and
Weile Wang

precipitation in the Pearl River Delta of China with satellite-derived measures of annual urban extent (1988–96) and monthly climate data from 16 local meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of the relationship among precipitation, temperature, and urban land use in concentric buffers around meteorological stations indicates that there is a causal relationship from temporal and spatial patterns of urban land use to temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation that may reduce rainfall during the dry

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Dennis Finn
,
Kirk L. Clawson
,
Roger G. Carter
,
Jason D. Rich
, and
K. Jerry Allwine

. 2005 ). This included a major program of meteorological measurements for understanding mean and turbulent flow conditions in the urban boundary layer, a major program of tracer concentration measurements for tracking the movement and dispersion of a pollutant in this environment, and a modeling effort designed to improve the ability to predict the movement and dispersion of toxic plumes in urban environments using the extensive meteorological and tracer concentration database generated. Both

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