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Roland J. Viger, Lauren E. Hay, Steven L. Markstrom, John W. Jones, and Gary R. Buell

three different sets of inputs that describe 1) changes in urbanization as projected by a land-cover change model, 2) changes in climate as projected by general circulation models (GCMs), and 3) the combination of changes in urbanization and climate. The hydrologic effect of each set of inputs was determined by comparing the resultant simulations to those created by using the same hydrologic model run with inputs describing current land-cover and climate conditions. The basin used in this study, the

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Wondmagegn Yigzaw, Faisal Hossain, and Alfred Kalyanapu

1. Introduction The transformation of forestland to urbanized impervious areas can change the runoff generation potential of a given area in a watershed on a large scale. Increases in population, economic opportunities, and migration can also result in greater urbanization ( DeFries and Eshleman 2004 ; Cohen 2003 ). In general, human activities are the most land-cover-altering factors that lead to a change in the distribution of runoff patterns ( Alberti 1999 ). Under a normal hydrological

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David R. Easterling, Grant Goodge, Matthew J. Menne, Claude N. Williams Jr., and David Levinson

-tropospheric and surface temperature trends, questions regarding the nature of observed warming at the surface continue to be raised. These questions include the impact of land-use/land-cover changes, including urbanization on in situ temperature records, and how much these land-use/land-cover changes impact the observed trend in global or regional averages calculated from individual station temperature records (e.g., Kalnay and Cai 2003 ; Vose et al. 2004 ). These questions are compounded at the local level

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Fang Wang, Quansheng Ge, Shaowu Wang, Qingxiang Li, and Philip D. Jones

of site-change and urbanisation in the Beijing temperature series 1977-2006 . Int. J. Climatol. , 30 , 1226 – 1234 , doi: 10.1002/joc.1971 . Yang , X. C. , Y. L. Hou , and B. D. Chen , 2011 : Observed surface warming induced by urbanization in east China . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , D14113 , doi: 10.1029/2010JD015452 . Zhang , A. Y. , G. Y. Ren , J. X. Zhou , Z. Y. Chu , Y. Y. Ren , and G. L. Tang , 2010 : Urbanization effect on surface air temperature trends over

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Marshall A. Atwater

SEPTEMBER 1975 M A R S H A L L A. A T W A T E R 1061Thermal Changes Induced by Urbanization and Pollutants MARSHALL A. ATWATERThe Center for the Environment and Man, Inc., Hartford, Conn. 06120(Manuscript received 27 June 1974, in revised form 25 March 1975) ABSTRACT A numerical model of the planetary boundary layer, based on the Eulerian conservation equation, is usedfor two- and

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Yan Zhang, James A. Smith, Lifeng Luo, Zifa Wang, and Mary Lynn Baeck

1. Introduction Urbanization that took place rapidly across developing countries from the late twentieth to the early twenty-first century is projected to continue over the coming decades ( United Nations 2010 ). Urban development boosts economic growth but creates many environmental challenges. From a climate perspective, the urbanization process can be characterized by the induced urban heat island (UHI; e.g., Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1982 ; Kalnay and Cai 2003 ), changes in urban canopy

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Panfeng Zhang, Guoyu Ren, Yun Qin, Yaqian Zhai, Tianlin Zhai, Suonam Kealdrup Tysa, Xiaoying Xue, Guowei Yang, and Xiubao Sun

global land daily temperature and precipitation data sets. National Meteorological Information Center of China Meteorological Administration, 21 pp. Yan , Z. , and Z. Li , Q. li , and P. Jones , 2010 : Effects of site change and urbanisation in the Beijing temperature series 1977–2006 . Int. J. Climatol. , 30 , 1226 – 1234 , https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1971 . 10.1002/joc.1971 Yang , X. , Y. Hou , and B. Chen , 2011 : Observed surface warming induced by urbanization in east

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Guoyu Ren and Yaqing Zhou

1. Introduction An understanding of long-term change of extreme temperature events is of importance to the detection and attribution of climate change and to the assessment of climate change impacts on natural and human systems. It is unclear in the present, however, whether or to what extent the urbanization has affected the long-term trends of the extreme temperature indices series constructed based on the frequently used observational datasets on a subcontinental to global scale. Many

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Yan Li, Lijuan Zhu, Xinyi Zhao, Shuangcheng Li, and Yan Yan

1. Introduction Urbanization is a very important anthropogenic factor in local and regional climate change and has been extensively studied. The urban heat island (UHI) induced by urbanization warms the air temperature in urban areas relative to the surrounding rural areas. The related warming strongly affects local and regional temperature changes while the magnitude is small from a global perspective. Several recent studies have examined the significant impact of the UHI on temperature in

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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

quantitatively, Karl and Knight (1998) analyzed long-term rainfall data during the period 1910–55 and found that the frequency of heavy precipitation events had increased over the United States by about 7% during said period. The change in heavy rainfall frequency has been primarily attributed to increasing greenhouse gases ( Meehl et al. 2000 ). Additionally, regional land-use/land-cover changes (LULCC) can also affect rainfall by altering mesoscale convection ( Pielke et al. 2007 , 2011 ). Urbanization

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