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Lacey Holland, Steven Businger, Tamar Elias, and Tiziana Cherubini

1. Introduction The longest eruptive episode in recorded history for Kīlauea volcano on the island of Hawaii ended in early August 2018. Kīlauea’s recent episode was an effusive (nonexplosive) eruption that resulted in a continuous source of volcanic gas emissions for the 35 years since 1983. The eruption ended with eruptive fissures in Kīlauea’s lower east rift zone (LERZ). The LERZ eruption was an extreme event that had impacts on visibility as far away as the Mariana Islands, more than 6000

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Erica Rosenblum and Ian Eisenman

has been found to be approximately linearly related to global-mean surface temperature in many of the CMIP3 and CMIP5 models ( Gregory et al. 2002 ; Winton 2011 ; Mahlstein and Knutti 2012 ; Stroeve and Notz 2015 ), including over periods as brief as 1979–2013 (Rosenblum and Eisenman 2016). This implies that volcano-related biases in simulated global warming during recent decades should be associated with biases in sea ice retreat. Consistent with this, a number of studies have shown that

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Alexandros P. Poulidis, Ian A. Renfrew, and Adrian J. Matthews

et al. 1998 ); Merapi, Indonesia ( Voight et al. 2000 ); Piton de la Fournaise, Réunion Island ( Violette et al. 2001 ); Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat ( Matthews et al. 2002 ; Carn et al. 2004 ; Barclay et al. 2006 ; Matthews et al. 2009 ); and Stromboli, Italy ( Hort et al. 2003 ). There is, however, a further unexplored possibility: that the heated summit of a volcano interacts with the orographic flow to force atmospheric convection and enhance precipitation, thus potentially

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Daniel J. Cecil, Dennis E. Buechler, John R. Mecikalski, and Xuanli Li

( GOES-R Calibration Working Group and GOES-R Series Program 2017 ) were obtained online ( ). For the Fuego Volcano eruption case on 3 June 2018, ABI full-disk scans were available at 15-min intervals. For the Argentina severe thunderstorm case on 10 November 2018, a special ABI mesoscale sector provided imagery every 60 s. This location was otherwise seen at 15-min intervals by the ABI full-disk scans. The ABI scan mode was subsequently changed to

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Steven Businger, Roy Huff, Andre Pattantyus, Keith Horton, A. Jeff Sutton, Tamar Elias, and Tiziana Cherubini

A program to measure and forecast the dispersion of hazardous volcanic emissions from the Kīlauea volcano in Hawaii is described. In 2014, Kīlauea volcano on the island of Hawaii entered its 32nd year of nearly continuous eruption. The current activity began in January 1983 and the first 4 years of the eruption included sensational episodes of lava fountains. During the high-fountaining events, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from Kīlauea’s east rift zone ranged from 5,000 to 30,000 tonnes of

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Adrian O. Pickersgill and Garry E. Hunt

40 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESAn Examination of the Formation of Linear Lee Waves Generated by Giant Martian Volcanoes~ ADRIAN O. PICKERSGILL AND GARRY E. HUNTLaboratory for Planetary Atmospheres, Department.of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT, England (Manuscript received 22 April 1980, in final form 17 September 1980) ABSTRACT The vertical wave

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Huanling Hu

1662 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL41, No. 9Measurements with a Spectral Pyranometer at Tucsonafter the Eruption of El Chich6n Volcano HUANL1NG HU1Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721(Manuscript received 9 September 1983, in final form 15 December 1983)ABSTRACT Spectral values of the downward hemispheric diffuse and tgtal flux densities

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146 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWSSl. 2/ [?6 9 ) THE BORINQS A T KILAUEA VOLCANOBy T. A. JAGGAR, Volcanologist[Volcano House, Bawaii, January. 10241ARCH, 1914The scientific value of making borings on a live volcano has been discussed among geologists for man years. Itthe notion that endless power resides in that boilin lava. The use of steam for generati electricity at Lar % erello in Italy has been much quote I 3 as com arable to what should be done in Hawaii. The late I&. John Brooks Henddrson

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J. W. Lavelle, M. A. Wetzler, E. T. Baker, and R. W. Embley

1. Introduction Axial Volcano, sitting astride the Juan de Fuca Ridge and above the Cobb Hotspot ( Karsten and Delaney 1989 ; Desonie and Duncan 1990 ) at 45°58′N, 130°W, erupted lava onto the seafloor in January 1998 ( Dziak and Fox 1999 ; Embley et al. 1999 ). Prior to the eruption, the caldera of the volcano had seen extensive surveys that located a number of focused- and diffuse-source hydrothermal venting sites (e.g., Baker et al. 1990 ; Embley et al. 1990 ). Following the eruption

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Norbert Schörghofer, Steven Businger, and Matthias Leopold

Permafrost and perennial cave ice are preserved in Hawaii as a result of microclimates. The upper slopes of Hawaii’s tallest volcanoes, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, are stone deserts where annual-mean temperatures are well above freezing, yet perennial ice is found in a few craters and caves. These ice bodies persist in an exceptionally warm climate. On the summit of Mauna Kea, the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) is +4°C ( ). The freezing index (the time

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