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S-K. Lee, D. B. Enfield, and C. Wang

1. Introduction The Western Hemisphere Warm Pool (WHWP) is a warm body of surface water that appears between March and October in the Western Hemisphere over the eastern north Pacific (ENP), the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), and the Caribbean Sea (CBN; Wang and Enfield 2001 ). During its warming (onset) phase, the WHWP responds to atmospheric heat fluxes across the air–sea interface, expanding its warm pool boundary. Once it is fully charged, the WHWP releases large amounts of moisture into the

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Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Lance F. Bosart, John R. Gyakum, and Eyad H. Atallah

-level trough; however, the wind speeds around the remnant system decrease monotonically with time and no significant reintensification of the storm is recorded. The postlandfall evolution of Hurricane Katrina’s upper-level outflow anticyclone is markedly different from that of the lower-level vortex, and forms the basis of this study. The proximity of the outflow layer to the upstream trough creates an anomalous conduit/freeway that injects a preexisting upper-level warm pool (anticyclone) into the

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Masahiro Watanabe

. 1 , top). Two fundamental properties of the warm pools that have been discussed in the literature are the spatial homogeneity and the longitudinal placement; the latter contrasts with the presence of cold tongues in the eastern basin (e.g., Clement et al. 2005 ). The spatial homogeneity of the warm pool, as frequently represented by the negatively skewed probability distribution of the tropical SST, suggests that processes that prohibit an increase in the SST are at work. The primary candidate

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Chunzai Wang, Liping Zhang, and Sang-Ki Lee

1. Introduction The Atlantic warm pool (AWP), defined by the sea surface temperature (SST) warmer than 28.5°C ( Wang and Enfield 2001 ), comprises the Intra-America Seas (IAS) (i.e., the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean) and the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA). Unlike the Indo-Pacific warm pool, which straddles the equator, the AWP is entirely north of the equator and is sandwiched between North and South America and between the tropical North Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The AWP has a

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Kristopher B. Karnauskas and Antonio J. Busalacchi

–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) aimed to provide an understanding of the role of the warm pool regions of the tropics in the mean and transient state of the tropical ocean–atmosphere system ( Webster and Lukas 1992 ). In comparison, relatively little is known about the warm pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Only in the last decade has attention begun to shift to the east, including the Pan American Climate Studies program (PACS), the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC), the

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Chunzai Wang, Sang-ki Lee, and David B. Enfield

1. Introduction Climate fluctuations in the Western Hemisphere have been largely attributed to well-known phenomena such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the tropical Atlantic meridional gradient variability, and the Atlantic Niño. The importance of variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) has recently been pointed out ( Wang and Enfield 2001 , 2003 ; Wang et al. 2006 ). At various stages of development, the WHWP

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Hailong Liu, Chunzai Wang, Sang-Ki Lee, and David Enfield

1. Introduction The Atlantic warm pool (AWP), defined as the region with sea surface temperature (SST) above 28.5°C consisting of the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the western tropical North Atlantic, undergoes strong variations on seasonal to multidecadal time scales ( Wang and Enfield 2001 , 2003 ; Wang et al. 2008a , b ; Enfield and Cid-Serrano 2010 ). The AWP variability has been shown to play a role in the climate system by affecting precipitation patterns and tropical cyclone

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Baek-Min Kim and Soon-Il An

1. Introduction How ENSO responds to global warming is a controversial issue and has attracted attention in recent literature. The characteristics of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are known to depend on the tropical mean climate conditions, such as the mean thermocline depth, mean wind stress ( An and Jin 2001 ; Fedorov and Philander 2000 ; Wang and An 2001 ), and the warm-pool temperature that defines the warmth of the tropical ocean ( Sun 1997 ). Although early studies utilizing a

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Kaycee Frederick and Courtney Schumacher

that half of the cirrus formed from convective blow-off. While we lack a concrete notion of how much cirrus is formed from deep convection across the tropics, it is assumed to be significant. This study focuses on analyses of macroproperties of thick tropical cirrus still attached to or recently produced by its convective source, hereafter referred to as anvil. C-band radar data from the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) that occurred in Darwin, Australia, in early

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Hui Wang and Vikram M. Mehta

1. Introduction The Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) contains some of the warmest ocean water in the world. Its formation is fundamentally driven by ocean dynamics, but atmospheric processes also play an important role ( Ramanathan and Collins 1991 ; Waliser and Graham 1993 ; Ramanathan et al. 1995 ; Schneider et al. 1996 ; Clement et al. 2005 ). The IPWP is characterized by persistently warm sea surface temperature (SST) higher than 28°C, which is a threshold for atmospheric deep convection

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