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K. K. Szeto, H. Tran, M. D. MacKay, R. Crawford, and R. E. Stewart

climate. In the GEWEX science plan, this pressing task is to be addressed in the so-called Water and Energy Budget Study (WEBS) that is first being carried out for the individual study basins selected for the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs), and then collectively under the coordination of the GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP; Lawford et al. 2004 ). WEBS in GEWEX CSEs differs from previous water and energy budget studies (e.g., Berbery et al. 1999 ; Trenberth et al. 2001 ; Roads et al

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

example, different reanalyses respond to global forcing with different circulation perturbations ( Chen et al. 2008a ). With several generations of reanalyses to consider, the various datasets generated from these efforts show large variance in the processes of the global water and energy budgets ( Chen et al. 2008a , b ; TFK09 ; Bosilovich et al. 2008 , 2009 ). Kalnay et al. (1996) , Uppala et al. (2005) , and Onogi et al. (2007) provide some of the most important overviews of existing long

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Si Gao, Shunan Zhai, Baiqing Chen, and Tim Li

latent heat release, convective bursts, hot towers, and mid- to upper-level warm core (e.g., Zhang and Chen 2012 ; Chen and Zhang 2013 ; Zagrodnik and Jiang 2014 ; Rogers et al. 2015 ; Tao and Jiang 2015 ; Zhuge et al. 2015 ; Gao et al. 2017a ). Water budget components generally contain total precipitable water (TPW), surface evaporation, precipitation, and moisture flux convergence (MFC). Given RH is calculated from both specific humidity and temperature, RH could be an indicator of specific

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Jiun-Dar Chern, David Mocko, Franklin R. Robertson, and Arlindo M. da Silva

1. Introduction Critical evaluation of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA; see appendix for acronym definitions) global water and energy budgets has documented significant improvements over previous generations of reanalysis in the annual-mean spatial patterns and amounts of precipitation in NASA’s latest reanalysis such that skill relative to GPCP/CMAP uncertainties is equivalent to that of the Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ECMWF-Interim; Bosilovich et

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Rebecca A. Smith and Christian D. Kummerow

1. Introduction In the semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, much of the water supply for seven states primarily begins as snowpack in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCRB). With sparse vegetation in the basin, changes in temperature and precipitation lead to direct responses in the water budget (particularly storage in snowpack and runoff), thus greatly affecting the water supply. A complete understanding of the water budget is critical, as changes can have major socioeconomic

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Ming-Jen Yang, Scott A. Braun, and Deng-Shun Chen

1. Introduction Malkus and Riehl (1960) indicated that the ratio of the moisture source from the ocean to the net horizontal import of moisture into a tropical cyclone (TC) was less than 10%. Despite the small percentage, the ocean moisture source plays an important role in the generation and maintenance of TCs ( Riehl and Malkus 1961 ; Kurihara 1975 ; Hawkins and Imbembo 1976 ; Zhang et al. 2002 ). Kurihara (1975) examined the water vapor budget of a simulated axisymmetric TC and found

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Haiyan Jiang, Jeffrey B. Halverson, Joanne Simpson, and Edward J. Zipser

process that allows the lower-tropospheric forcing to alter the tropical cyclone rainfall is associated with surface evaporation ( Frank 1977 ) and strong synoptic-scale water vapor convergence ( Charney and Elliassen 1964 ; Molinari and Skubis 1985 ). A moisture budget study is necessary to provide additional insight into the storm precipitation development and storm wetness parameter. Early water vapor budget studies for storms over land neglected the contribution from evaporation and suggested

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Peter Kalmus, Matthew Lebsock, and João Teixeira

al. (2007 , 2009) and Stephens et al. (2012) have demonstrated the usefulness of the holistic budget approach on the global scale. Regional budgets are perhaps more difficult to close than global budgets because they include advective terms which vanish in the global mean ( Wong et al. 2011 ), but they may be useful in isolating and evaluating key atmospheric processes such as the SCT. In this paper we report on the climatological mean energy and water budgets in the subtropical marine BL

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Dongmei Qi, Yueqing Li, Changyan Zhou, and Dan Chen

surroundings in summer has generally decreased, especially since the 1990s, and it is not conducive to the occurrence of summer precipitation. Moreover, water vapor transport is not only an important part of the water resource cycle but also the most critical and direct factor affecting precipitation (e.g., Xu et al. 2014 ; Chu et al. 2019 ). Besides, the water vapor transport and precipitation are closely related to the regional water vapor budget (WVB). Although much knowledge about the WVB climatic

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

oceans, and nutrients and minerals over land are all transported and redistributed within the earth climate system ( Chahine 1992 ; Schlesinger 1997 ). Thus, water plays a crucial role in earth’s climate and environment. Most studies of the global water cycle deal with only some specific aspects. There are also many regional or basin-scale synthesized analyses of the surface water budget, as reliable data are often available only over certain regions. Relatively few studies (e.g., Chahine 1992

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