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Shanshan Deng, Suxia Liu, and Xingguo Mo

correspond to the significance levels of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01. Second, the mean values of the estimates and the GRACE data are used to show the level of imbalance between the input and output of the water budget. Since the mean value of the TWSC monthly series in each grid is the mass change rate on a monthly scale, it reflects the regional water balance. The imbalance in the GRACE data can be regarded as the real changes in the water cycle caused by climate change or anthropogenic influences because of

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

the formulation of the budgets is discussed by Rienecker et al. (2007) and Suarez et al. (2011) . 3. Water and energy budgets a. Global mean climatology TFK09 collect the global energy budget data from various sources, observational and reanalyses, and close it with consistency arguments from dataset intercomparisons, to determine estimates for principal energy flux components and balance. However, each term exhibits large variations among the different observing systems and reanalyses, so any

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Kai Tong, Fengge Su, and Chunhong Li

water over the past 50 years. A 10-yr-long (2001–10) modeling study in four lakes (including Nam Co Lake) in the southern-central TP indicated that the glacier-melt contribution to the total basin runoff volume played a less important role than precipitation-induced runoff in nonglacierized land areas ( Biskop et al. 2016 ). In Nam Co Lake, long-term (1980–2010) changes in the water budget and lake level were simulated using a dynamic water balance model by Wu et al. (2014) , and glacier melt

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Sanaa Hobeichi, Gab Abramowitz, Steefan Contractor, and Jason Evans

(2018) have characterized the performance of multiple precipitation datasets through an approach that combines ground-based observation of multiple hydrologic variables along with performance metrics based on surface water budget closure. Their approach offers advancement over previous studies by allowing a more reliable evaluation of precipitation datasets over regions with sparse observations by relying on the physical conservation constraints offered by the water balance. In the same context

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Chuanhao Wu, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Haichun Wu, Bill X. Hu, and Guoru Huang

temporal variability of climatic forcing involves various region-specific processes such as snow thawing–melting and vegetation growth ( Zeng and Cai 2016 ). Although advances have been made to quantify the Δ S effects on the water balances estimation within the Budyko framework, our knowledge on the roles of Δ S in water balance partition and its influences on BM performance at the shorter time scales is still limited given the large spatiotemporal variability in most water budget variables and the

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Xiaoyin Liu, Junzeng Xu, Shihong Yang, Jiangang Zhang, and Yijiang Wang

that soil heat storage was released slowly over the several hours after sunset ( Masseroni et al. 2015 ; Liu et al. 2018 ). This explains why, in rice fields, Cs events occurred much later than Cc events. c. Importance and contribution of vapor condensation to the rice field water budget While vapor condensation was well recognized as an important hydrometeorological process and water balance component in arid or semiarid areas, information on vapor condensation in humid areas was scarce. The

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Peter Kalmus, Matthew Lebsock, and João Teixeira

al. (2007 , 2009) and Stephens et al. (2012) have demonstrated the usefulness of the holistic budget approach on the global scale. Regional budgets are perhaps more difficult to close than global budgets because they include advective terms which vanish in the global mean ( Wong et al. 2011 ), but they may be useful in isolating and evaluating key atmospheric processes such as the SCT. In this paper we report on the climatological mean energy and water budgets in the subtropical marine BL

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Di Tian, Ming Pan, and Eric F. Wood

, they arguably provided the most realistic precipitation, temperature, and radiation forcings for the VIC model. Since VIC was forced with observed P and calibrated against observed runoff, and VIC forces water balance by model construct, ET and RO from PGF/VIC are reasonable estimates of water budgets. Given that, the PGF/VIC radiation forcings are satellite observations and the water budget variables are reasonable estimates, so by inference, the estimates of land surface energy fluxes should be

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Harald Sodemann

, lifetime and turnover time have so far mostly been used interchangeably, a distinction as in other scientific disciplines ( McGuire and McDonnell 2006 ) seems valuable, as shown below. Fig . 1. Water vapor age and lifetime calculation for a homogeneous, stationary system. (a) Illustration of the budget of the atmospheric water content W with flux components evaporation E and precipitation P . Feathered arrows indicate that it is equally likely to have contributions from all parts of the atmosphere

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Vimal Mishra, Keith A. Cherkauer, and Laura C. Bowling

. 1999 ; Bowling and Lettenmaier 2010 ; Coe 1998 ; Coe et al. 2002 ). Lake water level may change seasonally and interannually in response to variations in the water balance over the lake and its watershed ( Street-Perrott and Harrison 1985 ). These variations are important for controlling surface runoff affected by lakes and wetlands ( Cardille et al. 2004 ). Wu and Johnston (2008) also indentified in a study conducted in a lake/wetland-dominated watershed in Michigan that the presence of lakes

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