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Ivana Cerovečki, Andrew J. S. Meijers, Matthew R. Mazloff, Sarah T. Gille, Veronica M. Tamsitt, and Paul R. Holland

Sea, and the Bellingshausen Sea ( Raphael et al. 2016 ). The ASL significantly influences the formation and properties of two major water masses in the southeast Pacific: Southeast Pacific Subantarctic Mode Water (SEPSAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) ( Close et al. 2013 , hereafter C13 ). Subantarctic Mode Waters (SAMWs) are produced in several locations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans when the upper-ocean mixed layer deepens in winter (e.g., Aoki et al. 2007 ; McCartney 1982

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Esther Portela, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, Christophe Maes, and Virginie Thierry

intense vertical mixing in the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans ( Desbruyères et al. 2017 ; Häkkinen et al. 2016 ). The existing studies suggest that mode waters, by their ability to store heat, play a key role in the climate regulation ( Gao et al. 2018 ). However, no driver or mechanism has been clearly identified to explain decadal variability in the water masses of the Southern Hemisphere oceans (SHOs). The water masses of the Southern Ocean play an important role in the global climate system

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Etienne Pauthenet, Fabien Roquet, Gurvan Madec, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, and David Nerini

1. Introduction The global ocean waters are traditionally divided into distinct water masses defined by their origin, their physicochemical properties (in particular their temperature and salinity), and their vertical position. Tracking the position and properties of water masses provides a powerful way for monitoring the ocean circulation and climate variability. The ocean, seen as a network of numerous water masses that are formed, transformed, mixed, and subducted, is however complex to

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

’s tropical gyre and carries water masses from the subtropical South Pacific to the equatorial band where intense air–sea interaction can amplify its impact. Solomon Sea transport is a substantial fraction of the total flow into the equatorial warm pool, and with large-amplitude interannual variability, it can be suspected of influencing equatorial climate variability. The most important goal of glider sampling in the Solomon Sea is to describe the heat impact of this Low Latitude Western Boundary Current

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Wallace Broecker

1. Introduction As our planet warms in response to the ongoing buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, one of the concerns is the way in which water availability will change in regions where it is already scarce. Inhabiting these so-called drylands are a billion and one-half of our poorest. Forty percent of our grains are grown on lands that must be irrigated because they are otherwise too dry for agriculture. Even in the absence of climate change, the availability of water in

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Shinichiro Kida

. Wea. Rev. , 138 , 3988 – 4005 . Baines , P. G. , 2009 : A model for the structure of the Antarctic Slope Front . Deep-Sea Res. II , 56 , 859 – 873 . Bindoff , N. L. , M. A. Rosenberg , and M. J. Warner , 2000 : On the circulation and water masses over the Antarctic continental slope and rise between 80 and 150°E . Deep-Sea Res. II , 47 , 2299 – 2326 . Chapman , D. C. , 2000 : The influence of an alongshelf current on the formation and offshore transport of dense water from a

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Gregory T. Pederson, Stephen T. Gray, Toby Ault, Wendy Marsh, Daniel B. Fagre, Andrew G. Bunn, Connie A. Woodhouse, and Lisa J. Graumlich

1. Introduction Much of the western United States and Canada is characterized by an arid to semiarid climate, and the majority (up to 80% or more) of surface water in this region originates as mountain snowpack ( Hamlet et al. 2007 ; Serreze et al. 1999 ; Stewart et al. 2005 ). Snow serves as a natural reservoir for water that is released over the spring [April–June (AMJ)], summer [July–September (JAS)], and fall [October–December (OND)], thereby providing municipal and industrial water

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Ho Jin Lee, Jae-Hun Park, Mark Wimbush, Kyung Tae Jung, Chan Joo Jang, Yang-Ki Cho, Young-Kyo Seo, and Jong Ho Nam

1. Introduction Several recent studies have shown a significant impact of tidal mixing on water masses and thereby on oceanic circulation, but most of these studies have incorporated tidal effects through parameterization. For example, enhanced tidal mixing caused by internal tides considerably reduces the bias in temperature T and salinity S when compared with observations ( Simmons et al. 2004 ; Koch-Larrouy et al. 2007 ) and strengthens ventilation of the North Pacific Ocean

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Meixia Lv, Zhuguo Ma, and Naiming Yuan

1. Introduction Under the influences of climate change and intensive anthropogenic activities, the terrestrial water cycle has changed markedly, especially in dry regions with large populations ( Ahmed et al. 2014 ; Feng et al. 2018 ; Rodell et al. 2018 ; Scanlon et al. 2018 ). Fortunately, the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variation products from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites ( Tapley et al. 2004 ), which represent changes related to both climate

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Baolan Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lisan Yu

near the Japan coast about 143°E, and strengthens in winter and weakens in summer ( Chen 2008 ). In the south of the KE front, the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (STMW; dashed contours in Fig. 1 ) is formed in winter and is then subducted into the thermocline and advected by the mean circulation ( Masuzawa 1969 ; Hanawa 1987 ). The STMW lies between the seasonal and main thermoclines and is characterized as a thermostad of 16°–18°C, or a potential vorticity minimum (vertically homogeneous

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