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Roy M. Rasmussen, Sarah A. Tessendorf, Lulin Xue, Courtney Weeks, Kyoko Ikeda, Scott Landolt, Dan Breed, Terry Deshler, and Barry Lawrence

seeding program, lasting multiple years and using multiple correlated target areas, was recommended for the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP; Breed et al. 2014 , hereafter B14 ) to provide the data needed to perform an evaluation of the likely amount of extra precipitation produced as a result of cloud seeding over two mountain ranges in Wyoming. The WWMPP following the design of B14 was a 6-yr, randomized cloud-seeding experiment in operation from 2008 to 2013. The statistical

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Daniel Breed, Roy Rasmussen, Courtney Weeks, Bruce Boe, and Terry Deshler

suggest that orographic seeding has the potential to enhance precipitation under certain well-constrained conditions. Results from programs such as these, coupled with an extended drought in the western United States, led the State of Wyoming to fund a winter orographic precipitation enhancement study, called the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP). 2. WWMPP In response to requests from the Wyoming Association of Conservation Districts and other stakeholders, the Wyoming State

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Jaclyn M. Ritzman, Terry Deshler, Kyoko Ikeda, and Roy Rasmussen

variations in previous results, a lack of scientifically conclusive results, and/or potential flaws in experimental designs, the impact of glaciogenic seeding on the wintertime snowpack remains to be successfully proven. In 2008 the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project (WWMPP), a multiyear RSE, began in southeastern Wyoming to extend and improve upon earlier glaciogenic RSEs and investigate the benefits of glaciogenic seeding to aide in the alleviation of drought conditions. The experimental design

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Earl R. Swanson

$72 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VoLU~E17Weather Modification: The Economic Context EA~. R. Sw~a~so~Deparlr,~O of .4gricullural ~conomic;~ Uni~er~ily o! Illinois, Urbana-Ckampai~n 61801(Manuscript received 2 November 1977, in final form 12 January 1978) There are two types of agricultural production technology--mechanical (labor-saving) and biologicalchemical (land-s~ving). Weather modification belongs to the

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Bernard A. Silverman

JuNE 1978 BERNARD A. SILVERMAN. 867What Do We Need in Weather Modification?BERNARD A. SILVERMANBureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. 80225 (Manuscript received 13 March 1978)ABSTRACT The needs of weather modification are examined from the vantage point of a manager, from the Federalsector, of applied research and development in precipitation management. Several problems in the perspective with

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Joanne Simpson

858 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~.uM~l?What Weather Modification Needs--A Scientist's View JOANNE $1~P$ON~ Unlve~ity of Virginia, Cka~lot~r~illz 22903(Manuscript received 28 October 1977, in final form 1 February 1978)ABSTRACTThe scientific and technological aspects of weather modification are addressed, emphasizing the need forphysical understanding, sequential development

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E. Ray Fosse

876 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUMSI?What Weather Modification Needs: An Insurance Perspective E. RAY Foss]~Crop-Hail Insurance Actuarial Association, Chicago, Ill. 60606(Manuscript received 19 October 1977, in final form 30 November 1977) Individuals and businesses use insurance as one important means of dealing with uncertainty. Whilethe insurance industry does not require the

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

weather modification has progressed hand in hand with scientific understanding. The following two sections deal with two applications that are implicit parts of twentieth- and twenty-first-century progress and that could not function without meteorological knowledge—aviation ( section 3 ) and national security ( section 4 ). To limit the scope, both of these sections focus on advances in the United States, which did lead the world in these arenas for some time; more recently, however, parallel

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Barbara C. Farhar

878 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo~.xnszl7What Does Weather Morl_ification Need? A Societal ViewBARBARA C. 17ARHAR Solar Energy l~search Institute, Gohl~n, Colo. gO~Ol(Manuscript received 30 November 1977, in final form 20 March 1978) The paper addresses four areas of concern relevant to a national policy on weather modification (beingdeveloped this year). These are 1) research policy issues, 2

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Bruce A. Boe, James A. Heimbach Jr., Terrence W. Krauss, Lulin Xue, Xia Chu, and John T. McPartland

, municipalities, irrigation districts, and state agencies. Many have been ongoing for decades. Reynolds (1988) and Super (1990) suggested that a significant problem in seeding winter orographic clouds is the uncertainty of adequate targeting zones of supercooled liquid water (SLW). Some weather modification experiments may have failed because the targeting issue was not adequately addressed. There is a large body of transport and dispersion studies that have been conducted in the western United States

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