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Pierre-Marie Poulain, Riccardo Gerin, Elena Mauri, and Romain Pennel

; Pazan and Niiler 2001 ) to calculate corrections of the drifter-inferred velocities as a function of wind and wave characteristics. A related problem is found in the extraction of wind-driven currents from drifter data, after eventual slippage corrections to minimize direct wind effects. Statistical models used to derive wind-driven currents based on the Ekman (1905) balance have been applied on drifter data by various authors ( McNally and White 1985 ; McNally et al. 1989 ; Niiler and Paduan

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Qingping Zou and Haifei Chen

al. 1999 , 2008 ). Buckley and Veron (2016) observed airflow separation above wind waves but not above mechanically generated swell. Recently, Giovanangeli et al. (2005) , Touboul et al. (2006) , and Kharif et al. (2008) conducted laboratory experiments of the following wind effects on freak waves. Their studies indicated that the following wind shifts the focus point downstream and increases the peak wave amplitude. They also found that extreme wave events sustain longer due to the

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T. J. Shepherd, R. J. Barthelmie, and S. C. Pryor

different near-field intensity and downstream propagation due to the fundamental differences in the two schemes described above. We further hypothesize that use of the Fitch scheme would induce stronger near-array effects than EWP because of the inclusion in EWP of the within-gridcell wake expansion. Also, based on prior numerical research ( Pryor et al. 2018a ), we anticipate that wind farm wakes will be of greater magnitude and have most significant impact on near-surface climate during the summer

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Renato Castelao, Robert Chant, Scott Glenn, and Oscar Schofield

stratification. As a consequence of the reduced stratification, the cross-shelf circulation at the inner shelf is virtually shutdown, being substantially weaker than when winds are upwelling favorable. The response of the inner-shelf circulation to upwelling and downwelling wind forcing is, therefore, asymmetric. The majority of the previous investigations of wind-driven cross-shelf currents over the inner shelf did not address directly the effects of tides on the circulation. Tidal currents can have an

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Firat Y. Testik and Bin Pei

references therein]. In this study, we investigated the effects of horizontal wind, an important but rather overlooked environmental agent, on the DSD shape variations and the governing microphysical processes. There are two aspects of wind-driven rain that are closely related to our study: wind-induced horizontal drift of raindrops and DSD modulations. The few studies on the horizontal drift of raindrops have been driven by applications such as surface radar rainfall estimation ( Collier 1999 ; Lack

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Bernhard Schulz and Juan Pedro Mellado

to enhance mixing mainly within a shallow layer ( Mellado et al. 2014 ). The thickness of this layer is typically a few tens of meters or less, confirming the importance of small-scale processes. However, radiative cooling has been neglected in the former study, which motivates us to investigate how a vertical wind shear alters the dynamics of a radiatively and evaporatively driven stratocumulus cloud top. The first goal is to identify when shear effects become relevant. Shear can enhance the

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Chih-Chiang Wei

movement traveling through the southern East China Sea (near northern Taiwan) (class V, comprising type 1); and the irregular track direction except classes I–V (class VI, comprising type 10). The purposes of this study were 1) to forecast the hourly typhoon wind velocity over the Penghu Islands and 2) to understand the effects of the CMR terrain over the Penghu Islands based on typhoon tracks. Numerous artificial intelligence models can be applied to formulate wind velocity prediction models. Since

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Y. C. He, P. W. Chan, and Q. S. Li

1. Introduction Wind measurement offers the essential data source for a wide range of practices in the fields of meteorology and wind engineering, such as weather forecasting ( Stauffer et al. 1991 ), wind energy assessment ( Shu et al. 2015 ), wind-disaster mitigation, and wind-resistant design ( Irwin 2006 ). Unfortunately, because of the terrain/topographic/height effects ( He et al. 2013 , 2014a ) as well as the influences caused by measurement systems ( Beljaars 1987 ), in situ

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Hans Burchard

depth H to the Ekman depth u * / f or, similarly, to the inverse Strouhal number, as proportional to the ratio of the mixing time scale to the inertial time scale, 2 π / f . Parameterized forms of the potential energy anomaly consider energy inputs into the water column due to wind stress as an agent for mixing, without taking wind-straining effects into account ( Wiles et al. 2006 ). However, observations of subtidal velocity profiles and stratification carried out by Scully et al. (2005) in

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Shih-Nan Chen and Lawrence P. Sanford

mixing. A horizontal Richardson number modified to include these two effects is shown to reasonably represent wind-induced variations in stratification. In section 4 , we decompose the salt flux to separate different salt transport mechanisms affected by wind. The idealized model allows us to focus on the local wind effects, contrasting the study by Wong and Moses-Hall (1998) , in which subtidal salt flux results from a mixture of local wind and remote sea level fluctuations. Finally, a regime

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