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Jonathan D. W. Kahl

1. Introduction Wind gusts, short-lived extremes within the spectrum of wind variation, occur when high momentum air is brought to the surface. They accompany both convective and nonconvective phenomena, and are sensitive to various physical factors including wind speed, boundary layer turbulence, surface roughness, stability, and topographic flows ( Letson et al. 2018 ; Harris and Kahl 2017 ). Wind gusts are often associated with serious hazards and structural damage ( Sheridan 2018 ) and

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W. Hu, F. Letson, R. J. Barthelmie, and S. C. Pryor

1. Introduction Wind gusts are coherent (transient) features within a turbulent wind field that are characterized by short-term wind speed increases. In the boundary layer, the dominant length scales, and magnitude, of turbulent fluctuations and the presence and characteristics of intermittent coherent features such as gusts depend on factors such as surface roughness, landscape patchiness, and topographical complexity, in addition to the stability and mesoscale climate ( Ágústsson and Ólafsson

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Paul W. Miller, Alan W. Black, Castle A. Williams, and John A. Knox

/coastal wind products (e.g., lake wind advisory, small craft advisory for winds, brisk wind advisory, gale warning, storm warning, hurricane force wind warning) and an additional suite of products tailored for specific circumstances in which wind is one of several criteria (e.g., dust storm warning, blizzard warning, etc.). The issuance criteria for wind advisories and high wind warnings can be achieved by either sustained winds or wind gusts ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Issuance criteria for NWS wind advisories

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Qinglan Li, Pengcheng Xu, Xingbao Wang, Hongping Lan, Chunyan Cao, Guangxin Li, Lijie Zhang, and Liqun Sun

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are the most destructive natural phenomena in China ( Duan et al. 2014 ). Offshore and landfalling TCs may induce wind gusts, heavy precipitation, and storm surge, which can take an enormous toll in terms of lives and personal properties. ( Willoughby et al. 2007 ; Konrad and Perry 2010 ; Li et al. 2015 ). Guangdong, the southernmost province in mainland China, with the South China Sea adjacent on its south, has the longest coastline of 4114 km among

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Chad Shouquan Cheng, Guilong Li, Qian Li, Heather Auld, and Chao Fu

1. Introduction High wind speeds and wind gusts from nontornadic storms are a significant meteorological hazard in the world that cause considerable economic and social costs as well as damage to properties, infrastructure, agriculture, and trees ( Dore 2003 ; Changnon 2009 ; Lopes et al. 2009 ; Pinto et al. 2010 ). Typically, in Ontario, Canada, these extreme wind events result from intense synoptic storms or convective activity or combinations of both. It is often the wind gusts or the

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Chad Shouquan Cheng, Edwina Lopes, Chao Fu, and Zhiyong Huang

1. Introduction It is well known that high wind speeds or gust wind extremes from nontornadic storms are among the most destructive natural hazards over the world that cause considerable economic and social costs, as well as damage to properties, infrastructure, agriculture, power lines, and trees ( Dore 2003 ; Changnon 2009 ; Lopes et al. 2009 ; Pinto et al. 2010 ). The damage to structures can increase significantly when wind gusts exceed a certain collective wind pressure design or

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Patrick Ludwig, Joaquim G. Pinto, Simona A. Hoepp, Andreas H. Fink, and Suzanne L. Gray

extratropical cyclones (Anton, 3 January; Franz, 11 January; Gerhard, 13 January; Hanno, 14 January; Lancelot, 20 January) over the North Atlantic with Kyrill being the most intense in terms of maximum wind gusts and precipitation amounts over central Europe. This successive occurrence of cyclones (building a cyclone family) is also known as serial clustering ( Mailier et al. 2006 ; Pinto et al. 2013 ). Additionally, the NAO dipole was shifted toward Europe forming an enhanced background pressure gradient

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Jacob Coburn and Sara C. Pryor

1. Introduction Wind gusts are short-term increases in wind speed which, while their specific definition varies across organizations ( Powell 1993 ), have impacts on biophysical and human systems. Intense wind gusts cause tree blowdowns that affect forest dynamics ( Kamimura et al. 2019 ; Dupont et al. 2015 ) and wildfire characteristics ( Fovell and Gallagher 2018 ; Nauslar et al. 2018 ). Strong wind gusts can reduce agricultural productivity and damage energy infrastructure

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Daniel P. Stern, George H. Bryan, Chia-Ying Lee, and James D. Doyle

1. Introduction The lowest kilometer within the eyewall of intense (categories 4 and 5) tropical cyclones (TCs) is characterized by some of the strongest wind speeds found anywhere on Earth. A recent analysis of dropsonde observations indicates that gusts in excess of 90 m s −1 are common within such TCs ( Stern et al. 2016 ), as nearly every category 5 hurricane that has been sampled by aircraft has at least one such sonde measurement ( Stern and Bryan 2018 , hereafter SB18 ). In situ

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Florian Pantillon, Bianca Adler, Ulrich Corsmeier, Peter Knippertz, Andreas Wieser, and Akio Hansen

well understood at the synoptic scale thanks to a century of research on the topic [see Schultz et al. (2018) for a historical review]. However, the contribution to the strongest winds from mesoscale airflows is still debated ( Hewson and Neu 2015 ), in particular from sting jets ( Clark and Gray 2018 ), whereas at smaller scales, convection (e.g., embedded in the cold front) can bring down high momentum to the surface and thus be responsible for the formation of devastating gusts ( Ludwig et al

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