Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 5,104 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Victoria A. Lang
,
Teresa J. Turner
,
Brandon R. Selbig
,
Austin R. Harris
, and
Jonathan D. W. Kahl

1. Introduction Wind gusts, a turbulent phenomenon occurring at small spatial and temporal scales, are an important and potentially costly environmental hazard. Economic losses due to wind include forest and crop damage and are of great interest to the insurance industry ( Welker et al. 2016 ; Valta et al. 2019 ; Jung and Schindler 2019 ; Usbeck et al. 2010 ). A single high-wind event in August 2020, for example, caused EUR 2,500,000 (∼USD 2.6 million) in apple orchard losses in

Full access
Jonathan D. W. Kahl

1. Introduction Wind gusts, short-lived extremes within the spectrum of wind variation, occur when high momentum air is brought to the surface. They accompany both convective and nonconvective phenomena, and are sensitive to various physical factors including wind speed, boundary layer turbulence, surface roughness, stability, and topographic flows ( Letson et al. 2018 ; Harris and Kahl 2017 ). Wind gusts are often associated with serious hazards and structural damage ( Sheridan 2018 ) and

Free access
W. Hu
,
F. Letson
,
R. J. Barthelmie
, and
S. C. Pryor

1. Introduction Wind gusts are coherent (transient) features within a turbulent wind field that are characterized by short-term wind speed increases. In the boundary layer, the dominant length scales, and magnitude, of turbulent fluctuations and the presence and characteristics of intermittent coherent features such as gusts depend on factors such as surface roughness, landscape patchiness, and topographical complexity, in addition to the stability and mesoscale climate ( Ágústsson and Ólafsson

Full access
Paul W. Miller
,
Alan W. Black
,
Castle A. Williams
, and
John A. Knox

/coastal wind products (e.g., lake wind advisory, small craft advisory for winds, brisk wind advisory, gale warning, storm warning, hurricane force wind warning) and an additional suite of products tailored for specific circumstances in which wind is one of several criteria (e.g., dust storm warning, blizzard warning, etc.). The issuance criteria for wind advisories and high wind warnings can be achieved by either sustained winds or wind gusts ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Issuance criteria for NWS wind advisories

Full access
Ethan Collins
,
Zachary J. Lebo
,
Robert Cox
,
Christopher Hammer
,
Matthew Brothers
,
Bart Geerts
,
Robert Capella
, and
Sarah McCorkle

LSM had a significant impact due to the differing representation of surface roughness. More recently, Fovell and Gallagher (2022) studied the performance of HRRR wind speeds and wind gusts (wind gusts were derived from a gust factor rather than the HRRR-forecasted wind gust which our study looks at). They found that strong wind speeds and wind gusts are underforecasted by the HRRR compared to Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) and the New York State Mesonet. Moreover, Fovell and

Restricted access
Qinglan Li
,
Pengcheng Xu
,
Xingbao Wang
,
Hongping Lan
,
Chunyan Cao
,
Guangxin Li
,
Lijie Zhang
, and
Liqun Sun

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are the most destructive natural phenomena in China ( Duan et al. 2014 ). Offshore and landfalling TCs may induce wind gusts, heavy precipitation, and storm surge, which can take an enormous toll in terms of lives and personal properties. ( Willoughby et al. 2007 ; Konrad and Perry 2010 ; Li et al. 2015 ). Guangdong, the southernmost province in mainland China, with the South China Sea adjacent on its south, has the longest coastline of 4114 km among

Full access
Chad Shouquan Cheng
,
Guilong Li
,
Qian Li
,
Heather Auld
, and
Chao Fu

1. Introduction High wind speeds and wind gusts from nontornadic storms are a significant meteorological hazard in the world that cause considerable economic and social costs as well as damage to properties, infrastructure, agriculture, and trees ( Dore 2003 ; Changnon 2009 ; Lopes et al. 2009 ; Pinto et al. 2010 ). Typically, in Ontario, Canada, these extreme wind events result from intense synoptic storms or convective activity or combinations of both. It is often the wind gusts or the

Full access
Chad Shouquan Cheng
,
Edwina Lopes
,
Chao Fu
, and
Zhiyong Huang

1. Introduction It is well known that high wind speeds or gust wind extremes from nontornadic storms are among the most destructive natural hazards over the world that cause considerable economic and social costs, as well as damage to properties, infrastructure, agriculture, power lines, and trees ( Dore 2003 ; Changnon 2009 ; Lopes et al. 2009 ; Pinto et al. 2010 ). The damage to structures can increase significantly when wind gusts exceed a certain collective wind pressure design or

Full access
Patrick Ludwig
,
Joaquim G. Pinto
,
Simona A. Hoepp
,
Andreas H. Fink
, and
Suzanne L. Gray

extratropical cyclones (Anton, 3 January; Franz, 11 January; Gerhard, 13 January; Hanno, 14 January; Lancelot, 20 January) over the North Atlantic with Kyrill being the most intense in terms of maximum wind gusts and precipitation amounts over central Europe. This successive occurrence of cyclones (building a cyclone family) is also known as serial clustering ( Mailier et al. 2006 ; Pinto et al. 2013 ). Additionally, the NAO dipole was shifted toward Europe forming an enhanced background pressure gradient

Full access
Jacob Coburn
and
Sara C. Pryor

1. Introduction Wind gusts are short-term increases in wind speed which, while their specific definition varies across organizations ( Powell 1993 ), have impacts on biophysical and human systems. Intense wind gusts cause tree blowdowns that affect forest dynamics ( Kamimura et al. 2019 ; Dupont et al. 2015 ) and wildfire characteristics ( Fovell and Gallagher 2018 ; Nauslar et al. 2018 ). Strong wind gusts can reduce agricultural productivity and damage energy infrastructure

Full access