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Craig M. Risien and Dudley B. Chelton

for June, July, and August (JJA) from 46 yr of International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Dataset (ICOADS) release 2.1 ( Worley et al. 2005 ). These ship-based observations are heavily biased in favor of the Northern Hemisphere and along major shipping routes. This is particularly true for the austral winter months (JJA) when the sampling of the Southern Ocean is reduced to almost zero. HR presented the first ship-based monthly climatology of wind stress and wind stress curl fields on a global

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David K. Hutchinson, Andrew Mc C. Hogg, and Jeffrey R. Blundell

1. Introduction Scatterometer observations of wind stress at the ocean’s surface show clear evidence of both large-scale atmospheric features and smaller-scale features resulting from interactions with the ocean ( Chelton et al. 2004 ). The small-scale oceanic features are caused by two primary mechanisms. The first mechanism is that of the ocean velocity, since stress can be approximated as a quadratic function of the relative velocity between the atmosphere and ocean ( Pacanowski 1987 ). The

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Mikitoshi Hirabara, Hiroshi Ishizaki, and Ichiro Ishikawa

1. Introduction Recent studies about global warming or multidecadal variability in the climate system indicate a poleward shift or long-term oscillation of the westerly wind over the Southern Ocean (e.g., Cai et al. 2003 ). The responses in the ocean to changes in wind stress over the Southern Ocean were investigated in previous studies (e.g., Oke and England 2004 ). In the latitude band containing the Drake Passage, meridional geostrophic flow zonally integrated above the sill depth must be

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Xia Lin, Xiaoming Zhai, Zhaomin Wang, and David R. Munday

1. Introduction The Southern Hemisphere (SH) surface westerly wind stress is a major forcing for driving the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and upwelling of deep waters in the Southern Ocean (SO). The SH westerly wind stress has strengthened significantly over the last few decades and is projected to continue to do so in the future, which may have important implications for the global climate system via modulating the rate at which the SO uptakes heat and carbon (e.g., Thompson and

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Xia Lin, Xiaoming Zhai, Zhaomin Wang, and David R. Munday

1. Introduction The Southern Hemisphere (SH) surface westerly wind stress plays an instrumental role in driving the Southern Ocean (SO) circulation and the global meridional overturning circulation ( Marshall and Speer 2012 ; Meredith et al. 2012 ; Gent 2016 ), as well as SO temperature changes and carbon uptake ( Le Quéré et al. 2007 ; Gille 2008 ; Wang et al. 2015 ; Jones et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2017 ). Since surface wind stress depends nonlinearly on surface wind velocity (e

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Tsuyoshi Wakamatsu, Michael G. G. Foreman, Patrick F. Cummins, and Josef Y. Cherniawsky

optimal sizes of errors are sought by minimizing a cost function that requires knowledge of the statistical properties of those errors. Generally, estimating an adequate structure for the statistical properties is not a trivial task and we need to model them with certain assumptions. In this study, we investigate the impact of the assumptions we make for the wind stress error covariance function in estimating wind-driven basin-scale ocean circulation. The statistical properties of the wind stress

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A. Birol Kara, Alan J. Wallcraft, E. Joseph Metzger, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Chris W. Fairall

1. Introduction and motivation The momentum exchange between the atmosphere and ocean through wind stress is of importance for many purposes, including air–sea interaction studies, climate studies, ocean modeling, and ocean prediction. Wind stress is typically obtained from bulk parameterizations that estimate turbulent fluxes using standard meteorological data (e.g., Fairall et al. 2003 ). In particular, the total wind stress magnitude ( τ ) at the ocean surface can be calculated from the

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Hirofumi Hinata, Nobuyoshi Kanatsu, and Satoshi Fujii

increasing δ −1 , whereas it approaches the nonrotating solution described by Wong (1994) and becomes symmetric when δ −1 approached 1. The primary interest in the previous studies was the current structure induced by a longitudinal wind, which is parallel to the basin axis, although in general the actual wind blows from arbitrary directions. Furthermore, the relationship between the wind-driven current and the wind stress is expected to be anisotropic; that is, the current velocities and

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Shayne McGregor, Neil J. Holbrook, and Scott B. Power

tropics on interdecadal time scales. Extratropical variability can be transmitted to the tropical Pacific Ocean via the atmosphere (e.g., Barnett et al. 1999 ; Pierce et al. 2000 ) via the ocean by changes to the shallow meridional overturning circulation (e.g., Kleeman et al. 1999 ; McPhaden and Zhang 2002 ; Nonaka et al. 2002 ) or by extratropical oceanic Rossby waves driven by wind stress variability (e.g., Lysne et al. 1997 ; Liu et al. 1999 ; Capotondi and Alexander 2001 ; Capotondi et

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J. Hirschi and J. Marotzke

here is whether this density information combined with the zonal wind stress is enough to infer the strength as well as the temporal and spatial variability of the MOC on a basinwide scale. In contrast to previous studies ( Hirschi et al. 2003 ; Baehr et al. 2004 ) no attempt is made to optimize an MOC “monitoring” system at particular latitudes in the ocean. Instead we discuss the quality of estimates of the MOC if the same approach is used for an entire basin. This paper can be considered to be

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