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Fabrice Ardhuin, T. H. C. Herbers, Kristen P. Watts, Gerbrant Ph van Vledder, R. Jensen, and Hans C. Graber

1. Introduction Wave forecasting and hindcasting is based on a large body of theory (e.g., Komen et al. 1994 ; Janssen 2004 ), which is often insufficient to fully account for complex flows near the ocean surface. For engineering purposes and to provide a benchmark for modeling wave growth, many studies have used dimensional analysis following Kitaigorodskii (1962) and established empirical relations between the wave spectrum and the fetch or duration of wind forcing, water depth, and wind

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Kirsty E. Hanley, Stephen E. Belcher, and Peter P. Sullivan

1. Introduction Ocean surface waves are the medium that transfer momentum across the air–sea interface. Currently, all operational ocean–atmosphere models only allow the momentum flux τ tot to be positive, from atmosphere to ocean. Recent observations during conditions when waves propagate faster than the wind have reported upward momentum flux from the waves to the atmosphere (e.g., Drennan et al. 1999 ; Grachev and Fairall 2001 ) and the occurrence of low-level wave-driven jets (e

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J. H. Lee and J. P. Monty

in wave fields ( Fedele et al. 2016 ) due to dispersive focusing of second-order nonresonant waves ( Fedele and Tayfun 2009 ) or third-order wave interaction associated with the modulational instability ( Benjamin and Feir 1967 ; Zakharov 1968 ; Janssen 2003 ; Chabchoub et al. 2011 ). While it is evident from the literature that a range of nonlinear mechanisms are at play in large wave growth, the role of wind (if any) in nonlinear focusing has received far less attention to date. Indeed it is

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Haoyu Jiang and Lin Mu

1. Introduction Wind-generated surface gravity waves (simply called waves hereafter) are a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon at the air–sea interface. They impact many aspects of human life, from industrial activities such as seafaring and port operations to recreational activities like surfing and yachting, and play a crucial role in many geophysical processes such as momentum exchange at the air–sea boundary layer. The studies of wave climate are important from both societal and

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Elad Shilo, Yosef Ashkenazy, Alon Rimmer, Shmuel Assouline, and Yitzhaq Mahrer

.g., Csanady 1976 ; Saylor et al. 1980 ; Mysak 1985a , b ), the effect of external forcing on their characteristics has received little attention. The effects of wind stress and bottom friction on topographic waves were addressed by Huang and Saylor (1982 , hereafter HS82 ), in their analysis of the topographic (vorticity) wave dynamics in the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Interaction of a free vortex mode with a forced mode was suggested as the mechanism for the generation of topographic waves

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Paul A. Hwang, Héctor García-Nava, and Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres

1. Introduction In the ocean environment, the presence of surface gravity waves is one of the most conspicuous phenomena. The waves grow from absorbing the energy and momentum of the forcing wind. Nonlinear wave–wave interaction transfers energy from the spectral peak region to both lower and higher frequencies and broadens the wave spectrum. During the growth process, waves also become steeper and eventually break with accompanying energy dissipation. The wind input, breaking dissipation, and

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V. K. Makin, H. Branger, W. L. Peirson, and J. P. Giovanangeli

also mention that during the ocean cruise the wave field at low winds was always dominated by swell and that it is very likely that the impact of swell on the atmosphere could result in a strong increase in the drag coefficient at low winds. Donelan et al. (1997) found a strong increase in the drag coefficient at low winds (less than 6 m s −1 ) in the presence of swell traveling across or opposite to the wind. No impact was detected in favorable winds. This finding was confirmed by Drennan et al

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Teruhisa Shimada, Osamu Isoguchi, and Hiroshi Kawamura

.g., Overland 1984 ). Recently high-resolution capability has been utilized in these studies by means of numerical simulations (e.g., Steenburgh et al. 1998 ; Colle and Mass 2000 ) and satellite images (e.g., Sandvik and Furevik 2002 ; Lee et al. 2005 ). Under the wind jet, wind waves are expected to react to its evolution. Wave development comes under the influence of the expansion of higher winds at the gap exit region and their downwind extension, as well as wind variation due to the internal

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Ying-Po Liao and James M. Kaihatu

1. Introduction The Persian Gulf is geographically located between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran, surrounded by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. It is a long semienclosed basin with a narrow opening (Strait of Hormuz) at the south passage, connecting to the Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean. Because of the large oil and gas reserves present, the Persian Gulf is an important natural and economic resource. The wind-wave conditions are therefore of interest. The

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Nyla T. Husain, Tetsu Hara, and Peter P. Sullivan

1. Introduction There is a continued interest in improving the prediction and parameterization of momentum, energy, heat, and gas exchanges between the ocean and atmosphere. It is well known that the coupling between wind and ocean surface waves modifies turbulent air–sea fluxes, thereby playing a substantial role in the development of weather and climate patterns forecast by numerical models ( Cronin et al. 2019 ). Yet, many uncertainties remain as to how wind–wave coupling impacts air

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