Time scales (days) with which horizontally integrated energy (KE for τCK, APE for τCP, and KE + APE for τdry, τmoist, and τtotal) could be replenished through the corresponding energy conversions (CK for τCK, CP for τCP, and CK + CP for τdry), diabatic energy generation (CQ for τmoist), and their sum (CK + CP + CQ for τtotal), for (composite) the composited PJ anomalies shown in Fig. 2, (model) the heat-induced response in the control experiment shown in Fig. 6, and the regressed anomalies shown in Figs. 14 and 15, (EOF1 and EOF2, respectively), based on the two leading modes of variability of the monthly 850-hPa horizontally smoothed vorticity over [0°–60°N, 100°–160°E] for JJA. The energy conversion/generation is integrated over the entire Northern Hemisphere for “net” and over subdomains as indicated, whereas energy is integrated over the entire Northern Hemisphere for all the cases. The vertical integrals from the surface to (composite and EOFs) the 100-hPa level and (model) the top of the model have been taken if indicated, before the horizontal integration. The time scales <30 days are highlighted in bold as an indication of efficient energy conversion/generation.