Overview of all data assimilation experiments—assimilating brightness temperature (BT), visible observations (VIS), and a combination of both with observation error oe(CA) depending on cloud impact in the water vapor band (Harnisch et al. 2016) and a given constant oevis for the visible spectral range. All experiments are assimilated for ≥1 h with a cycling period of 15, 30 min, or 1 h. Forecasts of 8 h each can be started after 4 cycles for all 40 members from the analysis. The data assimilation cycle in all experiments begins at 2000 UTC. Experiment BTCA=0 assimilates only clear-sky values, while in addition localizes the innovation around the clear-sky water vapor weighting function for 6.2 μm.