The Relationship Between Vertical Sounder Radiances and Mid-Latitude 300 mb Flow Patterns

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  • 1 National Environmental Satellite Service, NOAA, Washington, D.C. 20233
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Abstract

The direct synoptic application of radiances measured in the 695 cm−1 channel of the 15 μm carbon dioxide band by the vertical sounding instruments aboard the NOAA operational satellites is described. The radiation measured in this channel is emitted from a layer centered around 150–100 mb, or above the level of the polar jet stream and tropopause. In this region above the baroclinic zone of the polar front, the horizontal temperature gradient is the reverse of that found in the troposphere. It is demonstrated that mapped radiance patterns are quite useful for describing the upper tropospheric circulation features at 300 mb, and that the gradients are well related to 300 mb wind speeds in and near the polar jet stream.

Abstract

The direct synoptic application of radiances measured in the 695 cm−1 channel of the 15 μm carbon dioxide band by the vertical sounding instruments aboard the NOAA operational satellites is described. The radiation measured in this channel is emitted from a layer centered around 150–100 mb, or above the level of the polar jet stream and tropopause. In this region above the baroclinic zone of the polar front, the horizontal temperature gradient is the reverse of that found in the troposphere. It is demonstrated that mapped radiance patterns are quite useful for describing the upper tropospheric circulation features at 300 mb, and that the gradients are well related to 300 mb wind speeds in and near the polar jet stream.

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