The Diurnal Variation of Ground Temperature as Measured from TIROS II

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  • 1 U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C.
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Abstract

TIROS II measured the emission from the planet Earth in the atmospheric water-vapor window near 10 microns. During carefully selected times, when no clouds were present near sunrise or near noon, the measurements served to estimate the change in temperature of the ground. Under these conditions, although the change in transmittance of the atmosphere can be neglected for the purpose of computing the ground temperature change, the transmittance through the atmosphere must still be evaluated.

During cloudless sky conditions over Wisconsin on 23 November 1960, the change in ground temperature from sunrise to noon was about 24C as estimated from satellite measurements. The change in shelter air temperature was less than 15C over the same time interval.

In overcast areas, the movement and development of the clouds determine the variation of the energy measured by the satellite.

Abstract

TIROS II measured the emission from the planet Earth in the atmospheric water-vapor window near 10 microns. During carefully selected times, when no clouds were present near sunrise or near noon, the measurements served to estimate the change in temperature of the ground. Under these conditions, although the change in transmittance of the atmosphere can be neglected for the purpose of computing the ground temperature change, the transmittance through the atmosphere must still be evaluated.

During cloudless sky conditions over Wisconsin on 23 November 1960, the change in ground temperature from sunrise to noon was about 24C as estimated from satellite measurements. The change in shelter air temperature was less than 15C over the same time interval.

In overcast areas, the movement and development of the clouds determine the variation of the energy measured by the satellite.

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