Reflection and Emission Models for Deserts Derived from Nimbus-7 ERB Scanner Measurements

W. Frank Staylor Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665

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John T. Suttles Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665

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Abstract

Broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements obtained from the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget scanner were used to develop reflectance and emittance models for the Sahara-Arabian, Gibson, and Saudi Deserts. The models were established by fitting the satellite measurements to analytic functions. For the shartwave, the model function is based on an approximate solution to the radiative transfer equation. The bidirectional-reflectance function was obtained from a single-scattering approximation with a Rayleigh-like phase function. The diredional-reflactance model followed from integration of the bidirectional model and is a function of the sum and product of cosine solar and viewing zenith angles, thus satisfying reciprocity between these angles. The emittance model was based on a simple power-law of cosine viewing zenith angle.

Abstract

Broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements obtained from the Nimbus-7 Earth Radiation Budget scanner were used to develop reflectance and emittance models for the Sahara-Arabian, Gibson, and Saudi Deserts. The models were established by fitting the satellite measurements to analytic functions. For the shartwave, the model function is based on an approximate solution to the radiative transfer equation. The bidirectional-reflectance function was obtained from a single-scattering approximation with a Rayleigh-like phase function. The diredional-reflactance model followed from integration of the bidirectional model and is a function of the sum and product of cosine solar and viewing zenith angles, thus satisfying reciprocity between these angles. The emittance model was based on a simple power-law of cosine viewing zenith angle.

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