A Prediction Model for Snowmelt, Snow Surface Temperature and Freezing Depth Using a Heat Balance Method

Junsei Kondo Geophysical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Search for other papers by Junsei Kondo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
Takeshi Yamazaki Geophysical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Search for other papers by Takeshi Yamazaki in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Full access

Abstract

A snowmelt model based on a heat balance method has been developed. This model takes into account both the heat balance at the snow surface and that of the entire snow cover and simultaneously predicts the snow surface temperature and freezing depth. Observed or estimated incident radiation data are required for operation of the model.

Calculated amounts of snowmelt and snow surface temperatures were in agreement with those observed. Dependency of snowmelt on several parameters including maximum liquid water content, thermal conductivity and albedo of the snow was examined. It was found that as liquid water content or thermal conductivity increases, snowmelt decreases. Albedo is very influential in evaluating snowmelt.

Runoff from a basin having an area of 583 km2 was estimated using the present model, and was verified by the inflow data to a dam.

Abstract

A snowmelt model based on a heat balance method has been developed. This model takes into account both the heat balance at the snow surface and that of the entire snow cover and simultaneously predicts the snow surface temperature and freezing depth. Observed or estimated incident radiation data are required for operation of the model.

Calculated amounts of snowmelt and snow surface temperatures were in agreement with those observed. Dependency of snowmelt on several parameters including maximum liquid water content, thermal conductivity and albedo of the snow was examined. It was found that as liquid water content or thermal conductivity increases, snowmelt decreases. Albedo is very influential in evaluating snowmelt.

Runoff from a basin having an area of 583 km2 was estimated using the present model, and was verified by the inflow data to a dam.

Save