Effect of Topology of Water-Ice Mixture on Radar Backscattering by Hailstones

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  • a Department of Physics and Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • | b Atmospheric Science Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico
  • | c Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama
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Abstract

The radar backscattering cross sections of spongy hailstones are considerably influenced by the topological structure of the water-ice mixture. Observational evidence suggests that such an inhomogeneous composite medium can consist of regions of different topologies. We investigate three different kinds of topologies and derive a general mixed topology mixing rule (MTMR). The mixed topology rule is used to calculate the effective dielectric constant of spongy ice as a function of its liquid-water content. This leads to predictions of backscatter cross sections that are in good agreement with measurement.

Abstract

The radar backscattering cross sections of spongy hailstones are considerably influenced by the topological structure of the water-ice mixture. Observational evidence suggests that such an inhomogeneous composite medium can consist of regions of different topologies. We investigate three different kinds of topologies and derive a general mixed topology mixing rule (MTMR). The mixed topology rule is used to calculate the effective dielectric constant of spongy ice as a function of its liquid-water content. This leads to predictions of backscatter cross sections that are in good agreement with measurement.

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