This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract 091575-A-Q1, with the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Pacific Northwest Laboratories, the National Science Foundation, and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computation for this work was performed at the North Carolina Supercomputing Center.
Blackadar, A. K., 1957: Boundary layer wind maxima and their significance for the growth of nocturnal inversions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,38, 283–290.
Bonner, W. D., 1968: Climatology of the low level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev.,96, 833–850.
Boybeyi, Z., and S. Raman, 1992: A three-dimensional numerical sensitivity study of convection over the Florida peninsula. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,60, 325–359.
Brook, R. R., 1985: The Koorin nocturnal low-level jet. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,32, 133–154.
Businger, J. A., J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and E. F. Bradley, 1971: Flux-profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 181–189.
Chen, T., and J. A. Kpaeyeh, 1993: The synoptic-scale environment associated with the low-level jet of the Great Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 416–420.
Chen, Y., X. A. Chen, and Y. Zhang, 1994: A diagnostic study of the low-level jet during TAMEX IOP 5. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 2257–2284.
Clark, R. D., 1987: An observational and numerical study of the summertime, Great Plains low level jet. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wyoming.
Deardorff, J. W., 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res.,83, 1889–1903.
Doyle, J. D., and T. T. Warner, 1991: A Carolina coastal low-level jet during GALE IOP 2. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2414–2428.
Fast, J. D., and M. D. McCorcle, 1990: A two-dimensional numerical sensitivity study of the Great Plains low-level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 151–163.
Hoecker, W. H., 1963: Three southerly low-level jet systems delineated by the Weather Bureau special pibal network of 1961. Mon. Wea. Rev.,91, 573–582.
Holton, J. R., 1966. The diurnal boundary layer wind oscillation above sloping terrain. Tellus,19, 199–205.
Huang, C. Y., 1990: A mesoscale planetary boundary layer numerical model for simulations of topographically induced circulations. Ph.D. dissertation, North Carolina State University at Raleigh.
——, and S. Raman, 1989: An application of the E–e closure model to simulations of mesoscale topographic effects. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,49, 169–195.
——, and ——, 1990: Numerical simulations of cold air advection over the Appalachian Mountains and the Gulf Stream. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 343–362.
——, and ——, 1991a: Numerical simulation of January 28 cold air outbreak during “GALE” II, the model and sensitivity tests of turbulence closures. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,55, 381–407.
——, and ——, 1991b: Numerical simulation of January 28 cold air outbreak during “GALE” II, the mesoscale circulation and marine boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,56, 51–81.
——, and ——, 1992: A three-dimensional numerical investigation of Carolina coastal front and the Gulf Stream rainband. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 560–584.
Kraus, H., J. Malcher, and E. Schaller, 1985: A nocturnal low level jet during PUKK. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,31, 187–195.
Mahfouf, J.-F., E. Richard, and P. Mascart, 1987: The influence of soil and vegetation on the development of mesoscale circulations. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,26, 1483–1495.
Nagata, M., and Y. Ogura, 1991: A modeling case study of interaction between heavy precipitation and a low-level jet over Japan in the baiu season. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 1309–1336.
Nicolini, M., K. M. Waldron, and J. Paegle, 1993: Diurnal oscillation of low-level jets, vertical motion, and precipitation: A model case study. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2588–2610.
Parish, T. R., A. R. Rodi, and R. D. Clark, 1988: A case study of the summertime Great Plains low level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 94–105.
Segal, M., R. Avissar, M. C. McCumer, and R. A. Pielke, 1988: Evaluation of vegetation effects on the generation and modification of mesoscale circulations. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 2268–2292.
Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.
Uccellini, L. W., 1980: On the role of upper tropospheric jet streaks and leeside cyclongenesis in the development on low-level jets in the Great Plains. Mon. Wea. Rev.,108, 1689–1696.
Wexler, H., 1961: A boundary layer interpretation of the low-level jet. Tellus,13, 369–378.