This work was supported by NASA Grant NAG 5-2084. G. J. Ciach was supported by the NASA Graduate Student Fellowship in Global Change Research, NASA reference 4146-GC93-0225 (Award NGT 30160), and by the United States Agency for International Development under Grant HRN-5600-G-00-2037-00. J. R. McCollum was supported by the NASA Graduate Student Fellowship in Global Change Research, NASA Reference 4018-GC93-0098 (award NGT 30192). The authors appreciate this support. The authors gratefully acknowledge insightful discussions and helpful support by Robert Houze and by all organizers and participants of the Algorithm Intercomparison Workshops (AIW) that were part of the NASA TRMM Ground Validation Project. The TRMM Office prepared good quality data used in this study. Insightful remarks on this manuscript by Matthias Steiner from the Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research of Princeton University and discussions with V. Chandrasekar from the Electrical Engineering Department of Colorado State University are also gratefully acknowledged. Finally, we want to thank an anonymous reviewer for her/his thoughtful comments and stimulating remarks.
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