The authors acknowledge F. Roux (from Laboratoire d’Aérologie, Toulouse, France) for providing us with the tail radar reflectivity and wind field composites used to perform the analysis and reproduce Figs. 2a,b, and R. Bauer (from National Snow and Ice, Boulder, Colorado) for providing us with the OLS–IR data reproduced in Fig. 1. We are also indebted to T. Tani and P. Amayenc (CEPT) for providing KZS-deduced LRR and the reflectivity profiles from ARMAR. We express our appreciation to F. Marks, P. Willis, and R. Black (from NOAA/AOML, Miami, Florida) for providing the experimental Electra drop size spectra used to determine the characteristics of the rain distribution. We would like to thank the Process Studies Program Office (Code SEP, NASA Headquarters) and the Distributed Active Archive Center (Code 902.2) at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, for the production and distribution, respectively, of the AMMR, and AMMS and ARMAR data. The remarks made by the three anonymous reviewers greatly helped to improve the paper.
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