This work was supported by NASA Grant NAG 5-2084 and by the United States Agency for International Development Grant HRN-5600-G-00-2037-00. G. J. Ciach also was supported by NASA under Graduate Student Fellowship in Global Change Research, NASA Reference 4146-GC93-0225 (Award NGT 30160). This support is gratefully appreciated.
Atlas, D., and A. C. Chmela, 1957: Physical-synoptic variations of raindrop size parameters. Proc. Sixth Weather Radar Conf., Cambridge, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 21–29.
——, D. Rosenfeld, and D. B. Wolff, 1990: Climatologically tuned reflectivity–rain rate relations and links to area–time integrals. J. Appl. Meteor.,29, 1120–1135.
Battan, L. J., 1973: Radar Observation of the Atmosphere. The University of Chicago Press, 324 pp.
Carroll, R. J., D. Ruppert, and L. A. Stefanski, 1995: Measurement Error in Nonlinear Models. Chapman and Hall, 305 pp.
Ciach, G. J., 1997: Radar rainfall estimation as an optimal prediction problem. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 230 pp.
——, and W. F. Krajewski, 1997: Error separation in remote sensing rainfall estimation. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Hydrology, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 137–140.
——, and ——, 1999: On the estimation of radar rainfall error variance. Adv. Water Resour.,22, 585–595.
Crow, E. L., and K. Shimizu, 1988: Lognormal Distributions. Marcel Dekker, 387 pp.
Fuller, W. A., 1987: Measurement Error Models. John Wiley and Sons, 440 pp.
Hogg, R. V., and A. T. Craig, 1995: Introduction to Mathematical Statistics. Prentice-Hall, 564 pp.
Joss, J., and A. Waldvogel, 1970: A method to improve the accuracy of radar-measured amounts of precipitation. Preprints, 14th Radar Meteorology Conf., Tucson, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 237–238.
Karr, A. F., 1993: Probability. Springer-Verlag, 282 pp.
Kedem, B., H. Pavlopoulos, X. Guan, and D. A. Short, 1994: A probability distribution model for rain rate. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 1486–1493.
——, R. Pfeiffer, and D. A. Short, 1997: Variability of space–time mean rain rate. J. Appl. Meteor.,36, 443–451.
Kitchen, M., and R. M. Blackall, 1992: Representativeness errors in comparisons between radar and gauge measurements of rainfall. J. Hydrol.,134, 13–33.
Krajewski, W. F., and K. P. Georgakakos, 1985: Synthesis of radar–rainfall data. Water Resour. Res.,21, 764–768.
——, E. N. Anagnostou, and G. J. Ciach, 1996: Effects of the radar observation process on inferred rainfall statistics. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 493–502.
——, A. Kruger, and V. Nešpor, 1998: Experimental and numerical studies of small-scale rainfall measurements and variability. Water Sci. Technol.,37, 131–138.
Marshall, J. S., and W. M. Palmer, 1948: The distribution of raindrops with size. J. Meteor.,5, 165–166.
Rosenfeld, D., D. B. Wolff, and E. Amitai, 1994: The window probability matching method for rainfall measurement with radar. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 682–693.
——, E. Amitai, and D. B. Wolff, 1995: Classification of rain regimes by the three-dimensional properties of reflectivity fields. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 198–211.
Seber, G. A. F., 1989: Nonlinear Regression. John Wiley and Sons, 768 pp.
Simpson, J., R. F. Adler, and G. R. North, 1988: A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,69, 278–295.
Zawadzki, I., 1975: On radar–raingage comparison. J. Appl. Meteor.,14, 1430–1436.
——, 1984: Factors affecting the precision of radar measurements of rain. Preprints, 22d Radar Meteorology Conf., Zurich, Switzerland, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 251–256.