Support for our involvement in the field effort of the NGS Visibility Study and for part of the analysis presented here was provided by the Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona (with special appreciation to program manager Prem Bhardwaja). We thank Matt Savoie for his skillful programming and data-analysis support, John Gaynor and M. J. Post for their critical reviews of this paper, and Christine Sweet for her technical editing of the manuscript. We also appreciate the many helpful discussions with our colleagues Dan Wolfe, Cat Russell, Bill Neff, Dave Whiteman, Rollie Hauser, Lin Lindsey, Joe Sutherland, and Will Richards. Finally we are deeply indebted to the other members of our group, the Atmospheric Lidar Division, for the many long days (and in some cases weeks) spent at the Grand Canyon obtaining this outstanding dataset. The members include M. J. Post, Ron Willis, Janet Intrieri, Kathleen Healy, Mike Hardesty, Wynn Eberhard, Ron Richter, Eric Holloway, Jim Allard, Guy Pearson, and especially Richard Cupp. We appreciate the helpfulness and cooperation of Park Rangers of the National Park Service at Grand Canyon National Park in locating a suitable site for ETL’s Doppler lidar.
Banta, R. M., 1995: Sea breezes shallow and deep on the California coast. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 3614–3622.
——, and L. D. Olivier, 1991: Doppler lidar observations of airflow in the Grand Canyon. Proc. 84th Annual Meeting, Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, AWMA, 1–16.
——, ——, E. T. Holloway, R. A. Kropfli, B. W. Bartram, R. E. Cupp, and M. J. Post, 1992: Smoke column observations from two forest fires using Doppler lidar and Doppler radar. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 1328–1349.
——, ——, W. D. Neff, D. H. Levinson, and D. Ruffieux, 1995: Influence of canyon-induced flows on flow and dispersion over adjacent plains. Theor. Appl. Climatol.,52, 27–42.
——, ——, P. H. Gudiksen, and R. Lange, 1996: Implications of small-scale flow features to modeling dispersion over complex terrain. J. Appl. Meteor.,35, 330–342.
——, and Coauthors, 1997: Nocturnal cleansing flows in a tributary valley. Atmos. Environ.,31, 2147–2162.
Bell, R. C., and R. O. R. Y. Thompson, 1980: Valley ventilation by cross winds. J. Fluid. Mech.,96, 757–767.
Browning, K. A., and R. Wexler, 1968: The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar. J. Appl. Meteor.,7, 105–113.
Chan, M., and P. Bhardwaja, 1991: A synopsis of the Navajo Generating Station Visibility Study field project. Proc. 84th Annual Meeting, Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, AWMA, 1–15.
Cunningham, W. J., and A. J. Bedard, 1993: Mountain valley evacuation by upper level flows: A scale model study. AIAA J.,31, 1569–1573.
Gaynor, J. E., and R. M. Banta, 1991: Relation between cross-canyon circulations and vertical mixing into the Grand Canyon. Preprints, Seventh Conf. on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 384–387.
Hauser, R. K., C. D. Whiteman, and J. L. Sutherland, 1991: Surface meteorological conditions during the Winter 1990 Navajo Generating Station Visibility Impairment Study. Proc. 84th Annual Meeting, Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, AWMA, 1–27.
Levinson, D. H., and R. M. Banta, 1995: Observations of a terrain-forced mesoscale vortex and canyon drainage flows along the Front Range of the Colorado Rockies. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2029–2050.
Lindsey, C. G., J. Chen, T. S. Dye, L. W. Richards, and D. L. Blumenthal, 1999: Meteorological processes affecting the transport of emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park. J. Appl. Meteor.,38, 1031–1048.
McKee, T. B., and R. D. O’Neal, 1989: The role of valley geometry and energy budget in the formation of nocturnal valley winds. J. Appl. Meteor.,28, 445–456.
McKendry, I. G., D. G. Steyn, R. M. Banta, W. Strapp, K. Anlauf, and J. L. Pottier, 1998: Daytime photochemical pollutant transport over a tributary valley lake in southwestern British Columbia. J. Appl. Meteor.,37, 393–404.
Mohr, C. G., L. J. Miller, R. L. Vaughn, and H. W. Frank, 1986: Merger of mesoscale data sets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analysis. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,3, 143–161.
Neff, W. D., 1990: Remote sensing of atmospheric processes over complex terrain. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr., No. 45, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–228.
Oke, T. R., 1988: Street design and urban canopy layer climate. Energy Build.,11, 103–113.
Post, M. J., 1978: Experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosol inhomogeneities. Opt. Lett.,2, 166–168.
——, and W. D. Neff, 1986: Doppler lidar measurements of winds in a narrow mountain valley. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,67, 274–281.
——, and R. E. Cupp, 1990: Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar. Appl. Opt.,29, 4145–4158.
Richards, L. W., C. L. Blanchard, and D. L. Blumenthal, Eds., 1991:Navajo Generating Station Visibility Study Final Rep. STI-90200-1124-FR. Prepared for Salt River Project by Sonoma Technology, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA, 408 pp. [Available from Salt River Project, P. O. Box 52025, Phoenix, AZ 85072–2025.].
Rotach, M., 1993a: Turbulence close to a rough urban surface. Part I: Reynolds stress. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,65, 1–28.
——, 1993b: Turbulence close to a rough urban surface. Part II: Variances and gradients. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,66, 75–92.
Scorer, R. S., 1978: Environmental Aerodynamics. Ellis Horwood, 487 pp.
Sini, J.-F., S. Anquetin, and P. G. Mestayer, 1996: Pollutant dispersion and thermal effects in urban street canyons. Atmos. Environ.,30, 2659–2677.
Stearns, L. P., 1987: Aspects of local circulation at the Grand Canyon during the fall season. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,26, 1392–1400.
Steinacker, R., 1984: Area-height distribution of a valley and its relation to the valley wind. Contrib. Atmos. Phys.,57, 64–71.
Sutherland, J. L., 1991: Air mass stability associated with winter haziness at Grand Canyon National Park. Proc. 84th Annual Meeting, Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, AWMA, 1–8.
Tang, W., 1976: Theoretical study of cross-valley wind circulation. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol.,25A, 1–18.
Whiteman, C. D., 1990: Observations of thermally developed wind systems in mountainous terrain. Atmospheric Processes in Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr. No. 45, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5–42.
——, X. Bian, and J. L. Sutherland, 1999a: Wintertime surface wind patterns in the Colorado River Valley. J. Appl. Meteor.,38, 1118–1130.
——, S. Zhong, and X. Bian, 1999b: Wintertime boundary layer structure in the Grand Canyon. J. Appl. Meteor.,38, 1084–1102.