The authors wish to thank Stacy Stewart of NOAA Tropical Prediction Center for his contribution in the synoptic analyses, Christopher Velden of the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin for supplying the GMS infrared observations, and Dr. Robert Adler of Code 912 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for his support and critique of this paper. The study was supported by NASA Headquarters Dynamics and Thermodynamic Research Program headed by Dr. Ramesh Kakar.
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