The authors thank Dr. C. Kummerow of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for advice, M. Bellerby of P&L Systems International, Ltd., for answering numerous questions on neural network design and implementation, and anonymous referees for helpful suggestions. TRMM data for this project were obtained from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Science Data and Information System (TSDIS). GOES and gauge data were obtained from the NASA TRMM–LBA Field Campaign.
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