The authors gratefully acknowledge Drs. Wiscombe and Tsay for providing them with the computer code of DISORT. This work was funded by NASA Grant NAS5-31367.
Ackerman, S. A., W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, and H. E. Revercomb, 1990: The 27–28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: Spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window. Mon. Wea. Rev.,118, 2377–2388.
Chandrasekhar, S., 1960: Radiative Transfer. Dover Press, 393 pp.
Clough, S. A., M. J. Iacono, and J.-L. Moncet, 1992: Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to water vapor. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 15 761–15 785.
Deirmendjian, D., 1964: Scattering and polarization properties of water clouds and hazes in the visible and infrared. Appl. Opt.,3, 187–196.
Frey, R. A., B. A. Baum, W. P. Menzel, S. A. Ackerman, C. C. Moeller, and J. D. Spinhirne, 1999: A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2 slicing. J. Geophys. Res.,104, 24 547–24 555.
Heymsfield, A., cited 1999: Vertical profiles of replicator data from two cases from FIRE-II (25 November and 5 December). [Available online at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/science/cirrus/].
Lesht, B. M., 1995: An evaluation of ARM radiosonde operational performance. Preprints, Ninth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Charlotte, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 6–10.
Liou, K. N., 1986: Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: A global perspective. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1167–1199.
Revercomb, H. E., H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, and L. A. Sromovsky, 1988: Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: Solution to a problem with the High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder. Appl. Opt.,27, 3210–3218.
Smith, W. L., and R. Frey, 1990: On cloud altitude determinations from High Spectral Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) observations. J. Appl. Meteor.,29, 658–662.
Smith, W. L., X. L. Ma, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, and R. O. Knuteson, 1993: Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 1708–1720.
Smith, W. L., S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, and A. Collard, 1998: Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett.,25, 1137–1140.
Spinhirne, J. D., W. D. Hart, and D. Hlavka, 1996: Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 1438–1458.
Stamnes, K., S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera, 1988: A numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media. Appl. Opt.,27, 2502–2509.
Stephens, G. L., 1980: Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared region. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 435–446.
Stephens, G. L., and P. J. Webster, 1981: Clouds and climate: Sensitivity of simple systems. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 235–247.
Takano, Y., K. N. Liou, and P. Minnis, 1992: The effects of small ice crystals on cirrus infrared radiative properties. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1487–1493.
Tsay, S.-C., K. Stamnes, and K. Jayaweera, 1990: Radiative transfer in stratified atmospheres: Development and verification of a unified model. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,43, 133–148.