The authors wish to thank James Lamm for his assistance with the computer graphics as well as the constructive advice of two anonymous reviewers. ARM–CART data were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division. This research was supported by a graduate fellowship from the American Meteorological Society, NASA Global Change Fellowship NGT5-30116, and NASA Research Grant NAG5-6258.
Becker, F., 1987: The impact of spectral emissivity on the measurement of land surface temperature from a satellite. Int. J. Remote Sens.,8, 1509–1522.
Becker, F., and Z.-L. Li, 1990: Towards a local split window method over land surfaces. Int. J. Remote Sens.,11, 369–393.
Berk, A., L. S. Bernstein, and D. C. Robertson, 1989: MODTRAN:A moderate resolution model for Lowtran 7. Spectral Sciences, Inc., Tech. Rep. GL-TR-89-0122, 38 pp. [Available from Spectral Sciences, Inc., 99 South Bedford St., No. 7, Burlington, MA 01803.].
Caselles, V., C. Coll, and E. Valor, 1997: Land surface emissivity and temperature determination in the whole HAPEX-Sahel area from AVHRR data. Int. J. Remote Sens.,18, 1009–1027.
Faysash, D. A., and E. A. Smith, 1999: Simultaneous land surface temperature–emissivity retrieval in the infrared split window. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,16, 1673–1689.
Gao, W., R. L. Coulter, B. M. Lesht, J. Qiu, and M. L. Wesely, 1998:Estimating clear-sky regional surface fluxes in the southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site with ground measurements and satellite observations. J. Appl. Meteor.,37, 5–22.
Kidder, S. Q., and T. H. Vonder Haar, 1995: Satellite Meteorology. Academic Press, 466 pp.
Li, Z.-L., and F. Becker, 1993: Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVHRR data. Remote Sens. Environ.,43, 67–85.
Nerry, F., J. Labed, and M. P. Stoll, 1990: Spectral properties of land surface in the thermal infrared. 2: Field method for spectrally averaged emissivity measurements. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 7045–7062.
Pielke, R. A, 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling. Academic Press, 611 pp.
Prata, A. J., 1994: Land surface temperatures derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer: 2. Experimental results and validation of AVHRR algorithms. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 13 025–13 058.
Prata, A. J., V. Caselles, C. Coll, J. A. Sobrino, and C. Ottlé, 1995: Thermal remote sensing of land surface temperature from satellites: Current status and future prospects. Remote Sens. Rev.,12, 175–224.
Price, J. C., 1984: Land surface temperature measurements from the split window channels of the NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. J. Geophys. Res.,89, 7231–7237.
Rubio, E., V. Caselles, and C. Badenas, 1997: Emissivity measurements of several soils and vegetation types in the 8–14 μm wave band: Analysis of two field methods. Remote Sens. Environ.,59, 490–521.
Schlick, T., and A. Fogelson, 1992: TNPACK–A truncated Newton minimization package for large-scale problems. I: Algorithm and usage. ACM Trans. Math. Software,18, 46–70.
Schmugge, T. J., F. Becker, and Z. L. Li, 1991: Spectral emissivity variations observed in airborne surface temperature measurements. Remote Sens. Environ.,35, 95–104.
Stokes, G. M., and S. E. Schwartz, 1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic background and design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 1201–1221.
Valor, E., and V. Caselles, 1996: Mapping land surface emissivity from NDVI: Application to European, African, and South American areas. Remote Sens. Environ.,57, 167–184.
Watson, K., 1992: Two-temperature method for measuring emissivity. Remote Sens. Environ.,42, 117–121.
Xiang, X., and E. A. Smith, 1997: Feasibility of simultaneous surface temperature–emissivity retrieval using SSM/I measurements from HAPEX-Sahel. J. Hydrol.,188–189, 330–360.