The authors thank Dr. Michael D. King and Mr. T. Arnold of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Professor H. Kawamura of the Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies (CAOS) at Tohoku University, and Professor Futoki Sakaida of Kobe Marine and Merchant Marine University for their help in processing AVHRR data. The authors also thank Mr. A. Uekusa, Ms. Y. Sato, and Mr. H. Iwabuchi of CAOS and Mr. K. Kawamoto of the Center for Climate System Research at the University of Tokyo for their useful comments. This work mainly was performed during a graduate course at the Faculty of Science, Tohoku University. This research was supported partly by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (No. 08241104) of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture.
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