We would like to thank numerous GPCP researchers for many fruitful discussions over the years. In particular, we acknowledge Bob Adler, Phil Arkin, Sam Benedict, Ralph Ferraro, Arnie Gruber, George Huffman, John Janowiak, Alan McNab, Mark Morrissey, Grant Petty, Bruno Rudolf and Ping Ping Xie. We extend special thanks to Alan McNab for his help with processing the NCDC rain gauge data. The research was supported by the NOAA Office of Global Programs through Grant NA57WHO517. We also thank Diana Thrift for her help with editorial work on the manuscript and Paul Ludington for his assistance with the graphics.
Arkin, P. A., and P. E. Ardanuy, 1989: Estimating climate-scale precipitation from space: A review. J. Climate,2, 1229–1238.
Arkin, P. A., and P. Xie, 1994: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project: First Algorithm Intercomparison Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 401–419.
Barnston, A. G., 1991: An empirical method of estimating raingage and radar rainfall measurement bias and resolution. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 282–96.
Bras, R. L., and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, 1976: Evaluation of mean square error involved in approximating the areal average of a rainfall event by a discrete summation. Water Resour. Res.,12, 181–184.
Ciach, J. G., and W. F. Krajewski, 1999: On the estimation of radar rainfall error variance. Adv. Water Resour.,22, 585–595.
Fisher, R. A., 1921: On the probable error of a coefficient of correlation deduced from a small sample. Metron,1 (4), 3–32.
Groisman, P. Y., and D. R. Legates, 1994: The accuracy of United States precipitation data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 215–227.
Habib, E., W. F. Krajewski, V. Nespor, and A. Kruger, 1999: Numerical simulation studies of raingage data correction due to wind effect. J. Geophys. Res.,104, 19 723–19 734.
Huffman, G. J., 1997: Estimates of root-mean-square random error for finite samples of estimated precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor.,36, 1191–1201.
Huffman, G. J., and Coauthors, 1997: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) combined precipitation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 5–20.
Journel, A. G., and Ch. J. Huijbregts, 1978: Mining Geostatistics. Academic Press, 600 pp.
Krajewski, W. F., 1993: Global estimation of rainfall: Certain methodological issues. World at Risk: Global Climate Change and Natural Hazards, R. Bras, Ed., American Institute of Physics, 180–192.
Krajewski, W. F., and C. J. Duffy, 1988: Estimation of homogeneous isotropic random fields structure: A simulation study. Comp. Geosci.,14 (1), 113–122.
McCollum, J. R., and W. F. Krajewski, 1998: Uncertainty of monthly rainfall estimates from rain gauges in the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Water Resour. Res.,34 (10), 2647–2654.
Morrissey, M. L., J. A. Maliekal, J. S. Greene, and J. Wang, 1995: The uncertainty in simple spatial averages using raingage networks. Water Resour. Res.,31 (8), 2011–2017.
PIP-1, 1994: The First WetNet Precipitation Intercomparison Project (special issue). Remote Sens. Rev.,11, 373 pp.
Rudolf, B., H. Hauschild, W. Rueth, and U. Schneider, 1994: Terrestrial precipitation analysis: Operational method and required density of point measurements. Global Precipitation and Climate Change, M. Desbois and F. Desalmand, Eds., Springer Verlag, 173–186.
Schweppe, F. C., 1973: Uncertain Dynamic Systems. Prentice-Hall, 563 pp.
Stuart, A., and J. K. Ord, 1994: Kendall’s Advanced Theory of Statistics. Vol. 1, Distribution Theory, 6th ed., Edward Arnold, 676 pp.
Tabios, G., III, and T. D. Salas, 1985: A comparison analysis of techniques for spatial interpolation of precipitation. Water Resour. Bull.,21 (3), 365–380.
Zawadzki, I., 1973: Errors and fluctuations of raingage estimates of areal rainfall. J. Hydrol.,18, 243–255.