We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dan Driscoll and Jim Winter of the U.S. Geological Survey for providing precipitation data from the Black Hills Hydrology Study and Fred Kopp for performing the objective analysis of the precipitation data. We also thank Ms. Connie Crandall and Mrs. Carol Hirsch for their help in preparing this manuscript, and the reviewers for their comments and criticisms, which have resulted in an improved presentation. The work was supported by Grant ATM 9630008 and Grant ATM 9206919 from the National Science Foundation. The computations were performed using the facilities of the Scientific Computing Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is operated by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research and is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
Arakawa, A., 1966: Computational design for long term integration of the equations of motion: Two-dimensional incompressible flow. Part 1. J. Comput. Phys.,1, 119–143.
Bruintjes, R. T., T. L. Clark, and W. D. Hall, 1994: Interactions between topographic airflow and cloud/precipitation development during the passage of a winter storm in Arizona. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 48–67.
Clark, T. L., 1977: A small scale dynamic model using a terrain following coordinate transformation. J. Comput. Phys.,24, 186–215.
Clark, T. L., and R. D. Farley, 1984: Severe downslope windstorm calculations in two and three dimensions using anelastic interactive grid nesting: A possible mechanism for gustiness. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 329–350.
Clark, T. L., and W. D. Hall, 1991: Multi-domain simulations of the time dependent Navier Stokes equations: Benchmark error analysis of some nesting procedures. J. Comput. Phys.,92, 456–481.
Cooper, W. A., and J. D. Marwitz, 1980: Winter storms over the San Juan Mountains. Part III: Seeding potential. J. Appl. Meteor.,19, 942–949.
Cooper, W. A., and C. P. R. Saunders, 1980: Winter storms over the San Juan Mountains. Part II: Microphysical processes. J. Appl. Meteor.,19, 925–941.
DeGaetano, A. T., and J. R. French, 1991: Black Hills precipitation climatology based on surface wind direction. Rep. SDSMT/IAS/R-91/06, 67 pp. [Available from Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701-3995.].
Farley, R. D., S. Wang, and H. D. Orville, 1992: A comparison of 3D model results with observations for an isolated CCOPE thunderstorm. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,49, 187–207.
Farley, R. D., D. L. Hjermstad, and H. D. Orville, 1997: Numerical simulation of cloud seeding effects during a four-day storm period. J. Wea. Modif.,29, 49–55.
Hjelmfelt, M. R., and R. D. Farley, 1992: Airflow over a mesoscale ellipsoidal hill on sloping terrain—The Black Hills. Preprints, Sixth Conf. on Mountain Meteorology, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 12–16.
Hjelmfelt, M. R., G. Kondrasuk, and D. Priegnitz, 1994: Effects of the Black Hills on mesoscale airflow and precipitation patterns. Preprints, Sixth Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 566–569.
Hunt, C. R., and W. H. Snyder, 1980: Experiments on stably and neutrally stratified flow over a model three-dimensional hill. J. Fluid Mech.,96, 671–704.
Klimowski, B. A., and Coauthors, 1998: The 1995 Arizona Program:Toward a better understanding of winter storm precipitation development in mountainous terrain. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,79, 799–813.
Li, Z., 1996: Simulation of wintertime orographic cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement in the Black Hills region. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Meteorology, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 96 pp. [Available from Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701-3995.].
Lilly, D. K., 1962: On the numerical simulation of buoyant convection. Tellus,14, 148–172.
Lilly, D. K., 1965: On the computational stability of numerical solutions of time-dependent nonlinear geophysical fluid dynamics problems. Mon. Wea. Rev.,93, 11–26.
Lin, Y. L., R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, 1983: Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,22, 1065–1092.
Marwitz, J., 1987a: Deep orographic storms over the Sierra Nevada. Part I: Thermodynamic and kinematic structure. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 159–173.
Marwitz, J., 1987b: Deep orographic storms over the Sierra Nevada. Part II: The precipitation process. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 174–185.
Meyers, P. M., P. J. DeMott, and W. R. Cotton, 1992: New primary ice-nucleation parameterizations in an explicit cloud model. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 708–721.
Mielke, P. W., Jr., L. O. Grant, and C. F. Chappel, 1970: Elevation and spatial variation effects of wintertime orographic cloud seeding. J. Appl. Meteor.,9, 476–488; Corrigendum, 10, 842.
Mielke, P. W., Jr., L. O. Grant, and C. F. Chappel, 1971: An independent replication of the Climax wintertime orographic cloud seeding experiment. J. Appl. Meteor.,10, 1198–1212; Corrigendum, 15, 801.
Orville, H. D., 1996: A review of cloud modeling in weather modification. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 1535–1555.
Pobanz, B. M., J. D. Marwitz, and M. K. Politovich, 1994: Conditions associated with large drop regions. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 1366–1372.
Rasmussen, R. M., B. C. Bernstein, M. Murakami, G. Stossmeister, J. Reisner, and B. Stankov, 1995: The 1990 Valentine’s Day Arctic outbreak. Part I: Mesoscale and microscale structure and evolution of a Colorado Front Range shallow upslope cloud. J. Appl. Meteor.,34, 1481–1511.
Reynolds, D. W., 1988: A report on winter snowpack-augmentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,69, 1290–1300.
Reynolds, D. W., and A. S. Dennis, 1986: A review of the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,67, 513–523.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. Part I: The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,91, 99–164.
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., 1984: A fully multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm with small implicit diffusion. J. Comput. Phys.,54, 325–362.
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., and R. Rotunno, 1989: Low Froude number flow past three-dimensional obstacles. Part I: Baroclinically generated lee vortices. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1154–1164.
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., and R. Rotunno, 1990: Low Froude number flow past three-dimensional obstacles. Part II: Upwind flow reversal zone. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 1498–1511.
Super, A. B., 1990: Winter orographic cloud seeding status in the intermountain west. J. Wea. Modif.,22, 106–116.
Super, A. B., E. W. Holroyd III, and J. T. McPartland, 1989: Winter cloud seeding potential on the Mogollon Rim. Final Report, Arizona Department of Water Resources Intergovernmental Agreement IGA-88-6189-000-0051. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Rep. R-89-02, 173 pp. [Available from Research and Laboratory Sciences Division, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225.].