This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Grant R825260-01-0, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority under Contract 6085, and EPRI under Contract WO3189-12. The authors thank G. Sistla, A. Hansen, K. Schere, and I. Zurbenko for helpful discussions. Thanks are extended to K. Zang and G. Kallos for providing the meteorological fields from MM5 and RAMS simulations, respectively. The authors also thank the two anonymous referees for their constructive comments, which have helped us to improve the clarity of presentation.
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