We thank L. Giglio for his generous help in obtaining and using the SSM/I dataset and Paul Kucera for his advice in using the TOGA COARE radar data. We have benefitted from many helpful discussions about TMI data with Drs. Ye Hong and William S. Olson and from the insightful comments of Dr. Jeffrey R. McCollum and two anonymous reviewers. This research was supported by the Office of Earth Science of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.
Bell, T. L., and P. K. Kundu, 1996: A study of the sampling error in satellite rainfall estimates using optimal averaging of data and a stochastic model. J. Climate,9, 1251–1268.
——, and ——, 2000: Dependence of satellite sampling error on monthly averaged rain rates: Comparison of simple models and recent studies. J. Climate,13, 449–462.
——, A. Abdullah, R. L. Martin, and G. R. North, 1990: Sampling errors for satellite-derived tropical rainfall: Monte Carlo study using a space–time stochastic model. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 2195–2205.
Chang, A. T. C., and L. S. Chiu, 1999: Nonsystematic errors of monthly oceanic rainfall derived from SSM/I. Mon. Wea. Rev.,127, 1630–1638.
——, ——, and T. T. Wilheit, 1993: Random errors of oceanic monthly rainfall derived from SSM/I using probability distribution functions. Mon. Wea. Rev.,121, 2351–2354.
Chen, B., and M. Yanai, 2000: Comparison of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) during the TOGA COARE IOP with a 15-year climatology. J. Geophys. Res.,105, 2139–2149.
Conner, M. D., and G. W. Petty, 1998: Validation and intercomparison of SSM/I rain-rate retrieval methods over the continental United States. J. Appl. Meteor.,37, 679–700.
Ebert, E. E., and M. J. Manton, 1998: Performance of satellite rainfall estimation algorithms during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 1537–1557.
——, ——, P. A. Arkin, R. J. Allam, G. E. Holpin, and A. Gruber, 1996: Results from the GPCP Algorithm Intercomparison Projects. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 2875–2887.
Hendon, H. H., and K. Woodberry, 1993: The diurnal cycle of tropical convection. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 16 623–16 637.
Hong, Y., C. D. Kummerow, and W. S. Olson, 1999: Separation of convective and stratiform precipitation using microwave brightness temperature. J. Appl. Meteor.,38, 1195–1213.
Huffman, G. J., 1997: Estimates of root-mean-square random error for finite samples of estimated precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor.,36, 1191–1201.
Kummerow, C., and L. Giglio, 1994a: A passive microwave technique for estimating rainfall and vertical structure information from space. Part I: Algorithm description. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 3–18.
——, and ——, 1994b: A passive microwave technique for estimating rainfall and vertical structure information from space. Part II: Applications to SSM/I data. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 19–34.
——, W. S. Olson, and L. Giglio, 1996: A simplified scheme for obtaining precipitation and vertical hydrometeor profiles from passive microwave sensors. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,34, 1213–1232.
——, W. Barnes, T. Kozu, J. Shiue, and J. Simpson, 1998: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sensor package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,15, 808–816.
Laughlin, C. R., 1981: On the effect of temporal sampling on the observation of mean rainfall. Precipitation Measurements from Space, Workshop Report, D. Atlas and O. W. Thiele, Eds., NASA Publication, D59–D66. [Available from Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771.].
Leith, C. E., 1973: The standard error of time-average estimates of climatic means. J. Appl. Meteor.,12, 1066–1069.
Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1972: Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40–50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 1109–1123.
——, D. J. Shea, G. W. Branstator, J. J. Tribbia, and R. D. Webber, 1993: The effects of imperfect spatial and temporal sampling on estimates of the global mean temperature: Experiments with model data. J. Climate,6, 1057–1066.
Oki, R., and A. Sumi, 1994: Sampling simulation of TRMM rainfall estimation using radar–AMeDAS composites. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 1597–1608.
Quartly, G. D., M. A. Srokosz, and T. H. Guymer, 1999: Global precipitation statistics from dual-frequency TOPEX altimetry. J. Geophys. Res.,104, 31 489–31 516.
Short, D. A., D. B. Wolff, D. Rosenfeld, and D. Atlas, 1993: A study of the threshold method utilizing rain gauge data. J. Appl. Meteor.,32, 1379–1387.
——, P. A. Kucera, B. S. Ferrier, J. C. Gerlach, S. A. Rutledge, and O. W. Thiele, 1997: Shipboard radar rainfall patterns within the TOGA COARE IFA. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 2817–2836.
Simpson, J., R. F. Adler, and G. R. North, 1988: A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,69, 278–295.
——, C. Kummerow, W.-K. Tao, and R. F. Adler, 1996: On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,60, 19–36.
Steiner, M., 1996: Uncertainty of estimates of monthly areal rainfall for temporally sparse remote observations. Water Resour. Res.,32, 373–388.
Takayabu, Y. N., and T. Nitta, 1993: 3–5 day-period disturbances coupled with convection over the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,71, 221–246.
Wilheit, T. T., 1988: Error analysis for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Tropical Rainfall Measurements, J. S. Theon and N. Fugono, Eds., A. Deepak, 377–385.