The authors thank Earth Observation Research Center, NASDA, Japan, for providing the global TMI data from June to August 1998. We would also like to thank the TIPEX Group from China National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center and Peking University for providing surface precipitation data in Dangxiong. The suggestions from three anonymous reviewers also helped to improve the paper. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (49794030), the 1999 Science Foundation of China Meteorological Administration and Jilin Provincial Government Joint Laboratory for Weather Modification, and the National Key Program of Science and Technology of China (96-908-07-01).
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