The authors thank Dr. Chris Kummerow and his research group at Colorado State University for their support in the acquisition of the Goddard Profiling Algorithm cloud databases. We also thank Drs. Richard Engelen and Richard Austin for numerous enlightening discussions throughout the development of this algorithm. This research was funded through NASA TRMM Research Grant NAG5-7719.
Alishouse, J. C., , S. A. Snyder, , J. Vongsathorn, , and R. R. Ferraro. 1990. Determination of oceanic total precipitable water from the SSM/I. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 28:811–816.
Amayenc, P., , J. P. Diguet, , M. Marzoug, , and T. Tani. 1996. A class of single- and dual-frequency algorithms for rain-rate profiling from a spaceborne radar. Part II: Tests from airborne radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13:142–164.
Cess, R. D. Coauthors,. 1993. Uncertainties in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models. Science 262:1252–1255.
Engelen, R. J., and G. L. Stephens. 1999. Characterization of water vapour retrievals from TOVS/HIRS and SSM/T-2 measurements. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 125:331–351.
Fujita, M., and M. Satake. 1997. Rainfall rate profiling with attenuating-frequency radar using nonlinear LMS technique under a constraint on path-integrated rainfall rate. Int. J. Remote Sens. 18:1137–1147.
Fujita, M., , K. Okamoto, , H. Masuko, , T. Ojima, , and N. Fugono. 1985. Quantitative measurements of path-integrated rain rate by an airborne microwave radiometer over the ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 2:285–292.
Gunn, L. S., and T. W. R. East. 1954. The microwave properties of precipitation particles. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 80:522–545.
Haddad, Z., , E. A. Smith, , C. D. Kummerow, , T. Iguchi, , M. R. Farrar, , S. L. Durden, , M. Alves, , and W. S. Olson. 1997. The TRMM “Day-1” radar/radiometer combined rain-profiling algorithm. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan 75:799–809.
Hitschfeld, W., and J. Borden. 1954. Errors inherent in the radar measurement of rainfall at attenuating wavelengths. J. Meteor. 11:58–67.
Iguchi, T., and R. Meneghini. 1994. Intercomparison of single-frequency methods for retrieving a vertical rain profile from airborne or spaceborne radar data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11:1507–1516.
Iguchi, T., , T. Kozu, , R. Meneghini, , J. Awaka, , and K. Okamoto. 2000. Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM Precipitation Radar. J. Appl. Meteor. 39:2038–2052.
Jaynes, E. T. cited. 2001. Probability theory: The logic of science. [Available online at http://bayes.wustl.edu/etj/prob.html.].
Kummerow, C., and L. Giglio. 1994. A passive microwave technique for estimating rainfall and vertical structure information from space. Part I: Algorithm description. J. Appl. Meteor. 33:3–18.
Marks, C. J., and C. D. Rodgers. 1993. A retrieval method for atmospheric composition from limb emission measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 98:14939–14953.
Marzoug, M., and P. Amayenc. 1994. A class of single- and dual-frequency algorithms for rain-rate profiling from a spaceborne radar. Part I: Principle and tests from numerical simulations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11:1480–1506.
Miller, S. D., , G. L. Stephens, , C. K. Drummond, , A. K. Heidinger, , and P. T. Partain. 2000. A multisensor diagnostic satellite cloud property retrieval scheme. J. Geophys. Res. 105:19955–19971.
Olson, W. S., , C. D. Kummerow, , G. M. Heymsfield, , and L. Giglio. 1996. A method for combined passive–active microwave retrievals of cloud and precipitation profiles. J. Appl. Meteor. 35:1763–1789.
Petty, G. W. 1994a. Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part I: Theoretical characteristics of normalized polarization and scattering indices. Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 54:79–99.
Petty, G. W. . 1994b. Physical retrievals of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part II: Algorithm implementation. Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 54:101–121.
Rodgers, C. D. 1976. Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14:609–624.
Rodgers, C. D. . 1990. Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 95:5587–5595.
Simpson, J., , R. F. Adler, , and G. R. North. 1988. A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 69:278–295.
Simpson, J., , C. Kummerow, , W-K. Tao, , and R. F. Adler. 1996. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 60:19–36.
Smith, E. A., , X. Xiang, , A. Mugnai, , and G. J. Tripoli. 1994. Design of an inversion-based precipitation profile retrieval algorithm using an explicit cloud model for initial guess microphysics. Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 54:53–78.
Spencer, R. W., , H. M. Goodman, , and R. E. Hood. 1989. Precipitation retrieval over land and ocean with the SSM/I: Identification and characteristics of the scattering signal. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6:254–273.
Wang, Y. Coauthors,. 1996. Mesoscale model simulations of TRACE A and preliminary regional experiment for storm-scale operational and research meteorology convective systems and associated tracer transport. J. Geophys. Res. 101:24013–24027.
Wilheit, T. T., , A. T. C. Chang, , M. S. V. Rao, , E. B. Rodgers, , and J. S. Theon. 1977. A satellite technique for quantitatively mapping rainfall rates over the oceans. J. Appl. Meteor. 16:551–560.