We are grateful to Ian Roulstone and Matthew Byrom of the Met Office for motivating us to implement the Richardson equation in the 3DVAR system. Discussions with Andrew Crook and Jay Miller of NCAR/MMM on radar data analysis and assimilation were very helpful to our research. We also thank Jimy Dudhia of NCAR/MMM for providing consultation with the program development of the Richardson equation. Careful reading and constructive comments of the manuscript from NCAR internal reviewers, Andrew Crook, Jimy Dudhia, and Francoise Van den Berghe are gratefully acknowledged. This research has been supported by the USWRP program and the Korean Meteorological Administration.
Barker, D M., W. Huang, Y-R. Guo, and A. Bourgeois. 2003. A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for use with MM5. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN 453 + STR, 68 pp.
Barker, D M., W. Huang, Y-R. Guo, A J. Bourgeois, and Q. Xiao. 2004. A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for MM5: Implementation and initial results. Mon. Wea. Rev. 132:897–914.
Courtier, P., J N. Thepaut, and A. Hollingsworth. 1994. A strategy for operational implementation of 4D-Var using an incremental approach. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 120:1367–1387.
Fujiyoshi, T., T. Endoh, T. Yamada, K. Ksuboki, Y. Tachibana, and G. Wakahana. 1990. Determination of a Z–R relationship for snowfall using a radar and high sensitivity snow gauges. J. Appl. Meteor. 29:147–152.
Gao, J., M. Xue, A. Shapiro, and K. Droegemeier. 1999. A variational method for the analysis of three-dimensional wind fields from two Doppler radars. Mon. Wea. Rev. 127:2128–2142.
Hong, S-Y. and H-L. Pan. 1996. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 124:2322–2339.
Kain, J S. and J M. Fritsch. 1993. Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, K. A. Emanuel and D. J. Raymond, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 246 pp.
Lindskog, M., H. Järvinen, and D B. Michelson. 2002. Development of radar wind data assimilation for the HIRLAM 3D-Var. HIRLAM Tech. Rep. 52, 22 pp.
Lorenc, A C. Coauthors 2000. The Met. Office global three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 126:2991–3012.
Mohr, C G. and R L. Vaughan. 1979. An economical procedure for Cartesian interpolation and display of reflectivity data in three-dimensional space. J. Appl. Meteor. 18:661–670.
Mohr, C G., L J. Miller, and R L. Vaughan. 1981. An interactive software package for the rectification of radar data to three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 690–695.
Oye, R., C. Mueller, and S. Smith. 1995. Software for radar translation, visualization, editing, and interpolation. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 359–361.
Parrish, D F. and J. Derber. 1992. The National Meteorological Center’s spectral statistical-interpolation analysis system. Mon. Wea. Rev. 120:1747–1763.
Ray, P S., C L. Ziegler, W. Bumgarner, and R J. Serafin. 1980. Single- and multi-Doppler radar observations of tornadic storms. Mon. Wea. Rev. 108:1607–1625.
Ray, P S., B C. Johnson, K W. Johnson, J S. Bradberry, J J. Stephens, K K. Wagner, R B. Wilhelmson, and J B. Klemp. 1981. The morphology of several tornadic storms on 20 May 1977. J. Atmos. Sci. 38:1643–1663.
Reisner, J., R J. Rasmussen, and R T. Bruintjes. 1998. Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 124B:1071–1107.
Sun, J. and N A. Crook. 1997. Dynamical and microphysical retrieval from Doppler radar observations using a cloud model and its adjoint. Part I: Model development and simulated data experiments. J. Atmos. Sci. 54:1642–1661.
Sun, J. and N A. Crook. 1998. Dynamical and microphysical retrieval from Doppler radar observations using a cloud model and its adjoint. Part II: Retrieval experiments of an observed Florida convective storm. J. Atmos. Sci. 55:835–852.
Sun, J. and N A. Crook. 2001. Real-time low-level wind and temperature analysis using single WSR-88D data. Wea. Forecasting 16:117–132.
Tuttle, J D. and G B. Foote. 1990. Determination of the boundary layer airflow from a single Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7:218–232.
Weygandt, S S., A. Shapiro, and K K. Droegemeier. 2002a. Retrieval of model initial fields from single-Doppler observations of a supercell thunderstorm. Part I: Single-Doppler velocity retrieval. Mon. Wea. Rev. 130:433–453.
Weygandt, S S., A. Shapiro, and K K. Droegemeier. 2002b. Retrieval of model initial fields from single-Doppler observations of a supercell thunderstorm. Part II: Thermodynamic retrieval and numerical prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev. 130:454–476.
White, A. 2000. A view of the equations of meteorological dynamics and various approximations. Met Office Forecasting Research Scientific Paper 58, 88 pp.