This work was performed under funding from the National Science Foundation Grants ATM-9904710 and ATM-0244731. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.
Albrecht, B A., , S K. Cox, , and W H. Schubert. 1979. Radiometric measurements of in-cloud temperature fluctuations. J. Appl. Meteor. 18:1066–1071.
Astheimer, R W. 1962. An infrared radiation air thermometer. Proc. University of Michigan Symp. on Remote Sensing of Environment, Ann Arbor, MI, Willow Run Laboratories, University of Michigan.
Baker, B A., , R E. Breidenthal, , T W. Choularton, , and J. Latham. 1984. The effects of turbulent mixing in clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 41:299–304.
Blyth, A M., , W A. Cooper, , and J B. Jensen. 1988. A study of the source of entrained air in Montana cumuli. J. Atmos. Sci. 45:3944–3964.
Broadwell, J E., and R E. Breidenthal. 1982. A simple model of mixing and chemical reaction in a turbulent shear layer. J. Fluid Mech. 125:397–410.
Cooper, W A. 1987. The Ophir radiometric thermometer: Preliminary evaluation. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-292+STR, 54 pp.
Cooper, W A., and R P. Lawson. 1984. Physical interpretation of results from the HIPLEX-1 Experiment. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 23:523–540.
Cooper, W A., , R P. Lawson, , A R. Rodi, , and T A. Cerni. 1982. Cloud physics investigations. Tech. Rep. AS 142, University of Wyoming, 129 pp.
Haman, K E., , A. Makulski, , S P. Malinowski, , and R. Busen. 1997. A new ultrafast thermometer for airborne measurements in clouds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 14:217–227.
Haman, K E., , S P. Malinowski, , B D. Struś, , R. Busen, , and A. Stefko. 2001. Two new types of ultrafast aircraft thermometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18:117–134.
Heymsfield, A J., , P N. Johnson, , and J E. Dye. 1978. Observations of moist adiabatic ascent in northeast Colorado cumulus congestus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 35:1689–1703.
Igau, R C., , M A. LeMone, , and D. Wei. 1999. Updraft and downdraft cores in TOGA COARE: Why so many buoyant downdraft cores? J. Atmos. Sci. 56:2232–2245.
King, W D., , D A. Parkin, , and R J. Handsworth. 1978. A hot-wire liquid water device having fully calculable response characteristics. J. Appl. Meteor. 17:1809–1813.
Klaassen, G P., and T L. Clark. 1985. Dynamics of the cloud-environment interface and entrainment in small cumuli: Two-dimensional simulations in the absence of ambient shear. J. Atmos. Sci. 42:2621–2642.
Krueger, S K., , C W. Su, , and P A. McMurtry. 1997. Modeling entrainment and fine-scale mixing in cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 54:2697–2712.
Lawson, R P. 1988. The measurement of temperature from an aircraft in cloud. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wyoming, 336 pp. [Available from University of Wyoming, P.O. Box 3038, Laramie, WY 82071.].
Lawson, R P., and A R. Rodi. 1987. Airborne tests of sensor wetting in a reverse-flow temperature probe. Preprints, Sixth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 253–256.
Lawson, R P., and A R. Rodi. 1992. A new airborne thermometer for atmospheric and cloud physics research. Part I: Design and preliminary flight tests. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 9:556–574.
Lawson, R P., and A M. Blyth. 1998. A comparison of optical measurements of liquid water content and drop size distribution in adiabatic regions of Florida cumuli. Atmos. Res. 47–48:671–690.
Lawson, R P., , L G. Davis, , and D S. Treddenick. 1980. Airborne cloud physics and seeding: Investigations by Colorado International Corporation in HIPLEX. 1977–1980. U.S. Water and Power Resources Service Final Rep. Contract 83-V0004, Division of Water Resources Management, 240 pp.
LeMone, M A., and E J. Zipser. 1980. Cumulonimbus vertical velocity events in GATE. Part I: Diameter, intensity and mass flux. J. Atmos. Sci. 37:2444–2457.
Lenschow, D H., and W T. Pennell. 1974. On the measurement of in-cloud and wet-bulb temperatures from an aircraft. Mon. Wea. Rev. 102:447–454.
Musil, D J., , A J. Heymsfield, , and P L. Smith. 1986. Microphysical characteristics of well-developed weak echo region in a High Plains supercell thunderstorm. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 25:1037–1051.
Nelson, L D. 1982. Theory, electro-optical design, testing and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity and temperature sensor. U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Final Rep. AFGL-TR-32-0283, 107 pp.
Nicholls, S., , E L. Simmons, , N C. Atkinson, , and S D. Rudman. 1988. A comparison of radiometric and immersion temperature measurements in water clouds. Preprints, 10th Int. Conf. on Cloud Physics, Hamburg, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 322–324.
Paluch, I R., and D W. Breed. 1984. A continental storm with a steady, adiabatic updraft and high concentrations of small ice particles: 6 July 1976 case study. J. Atmos. Sci. 41:1651–1664.
Schemenauer, R S., and G A. Isaac. 1984. The importance of cloud top lifetime in the description of natural cloud characteristics. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 23:267–279.
Simpson, J., , R F. Adler, , and G R. North. 1988. A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 69:278–295.
Sinkevich, A A. 1981. The analysis of IR-radiometer operation in measuring temperature of clear-air and cloudy atmospheres. Tr. Inst. MGO 439:93–102.
Sinkevich, A A. 1984. Investigation of the thermal characteristics of Cumulus Congestus using an IR Radiometer. Meteor. Hydrol. 1:40–46.
Telford, J W., and J. Warner. 1962. On the measurement from an aircraft of buoyancy and vertical air velocity in cloud. J. Atmos. Sci. 19:415–423.