This study would not have been complete without the data provided by Dave Flory and Daryl Herzmann of Iowa State University, Bill Myers of NCAR, and Tim Hart of the USDA Soil Tilth Laboratory. The author also thanks Dennis Burkheimer and the Iowa Department of Transportation for their valuable guidance and support throughout this project. This research was funded by AURORA and the Iowa Department of Transportation.
Bernstein, B. C., J. K. Wolff, and W. Myers, 2004: Verification of the road weather forecast system run during the 2003 demonstration at the Iowa Department of Transportation. Proc. Sixth Annual Symp. on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Spokane, WA, Transportation Research Board, 109–126.
Crevier, L-P., and Y. Delage, 2001: METRo: A new model for road-condition forecasting in Canada. J. Appl. Meteor, 40 , 2026–2037.
Greenfield, T. M., 2004: Bridge frost prediction through heat and mass transfer methods. M.S. thesis, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, 116 pp.
Greenfield, T. M., E. S. Takle, B. J. Tentinger, J. J. Alamo, D. Burkheimer, and D. McCauley, 2004: Bridge frost occurrence and prediction. Proc. Sixth Annual Symp. on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Spokane, WA, Transportation Research Board, 391–398.
Gutowski, W. J. J., S. G. Decker, R. A. Donaron, Z. Pan, R. W. Arritt, and E. S. Takle, 2003: Temporal scale of precipitation errors in central United States climate simulations. J. Climate, 16 , 3841–3847.
Iowa Environmental Mesonet, 2004: Iowa SchoolNet precipitation data. [Available online at http://mesonet.agron.iastate.edu/schoolnet/dl/.].
Jacobs, W., and W. E. Raatz, 1996: Forecasting road-surface temperatures for different site characteristics. Meteor. Appl, 3 , 243–256.
Takle, E. S., and T. M. Greenfield, 2002: Calculating accumulated frost by use of observed and forecast meteorological values Final Report to the Iowa Department of Transportation, Rep. 133, Iowa State University, 39 pp.
Temeyer, B. R., 2003: Use of an artificial neural network to predict air temperature, surface temperature, dew point, and wind speed for the prediction of frost M.S. thesis, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, 108 pp.