TRMM datasets utilized in this study were accessed from the TRMM Science Data and Information System and the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center. David Wolff and David Marks of GSFC's Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch provided analysis and helpful advice concerning Kwajalein ground validation radar estimates of rain rate. The University of Washington Mesoscale Group kindly supplied dual-Doppler radar datasets for selected cases. Estimates of Q1 and surface rain rate based upon the SCSMEX rawinsonde network were provided by Paul Ciesielski and Richard Johnson of Colorado State University, whose expert advice is gratefully acknowledged. This research was supported by the NASA TRMM, Global Water and Energy Cycle, and Global Precipitation Measurement projects.
Awaka, J., , T. Iguchi, , and K. Okamoto, 1998: Early results on rain type classification by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar. Proc. Eighth URSI Commission F Triennial Open Symp., Aveiro, Portugal, International Union of Radio Science, 143–146.
Bell, T. L., , and P. K. Kundu, 2000: Dependence of satellite sampling error on monthly averaged rain rates: Comparison of simple models and recent studies. J. Climate, 13 , 449–462.
Bell, T. L., , A. Abdullah, , R. L. Martin, , and G. R. North, 1990: Sampling errors for satellite-derived tropical rainfall: Monte Carlo study using a space-time stochastic model. J. Geophys. Res, 95 , 2195–2205.
Berg, W., , C. Kummerow, , and C. Morales, 2002: Differences between East and West Pacific rainfall systems. J. Climate, 15 , 3659–3672.
Cifelli, R., , and S. A. Rutledge, 1998: Vertical motion, diabatic heating, and rainfall characteristics in North Australia convective systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 124 , 1133–1162.
Davies-Jones, R. P., 1979: Dual-Doppler radar coverage area as a function of measurement accuracy and spatial resolution. J. Appl. Meteor, 18 , 1229–1233.
Doviak, R. J., , P. S. Ray, , R. G. Strauch, , and L. J. Miller, 1976: Error estimation in wind fields derived from dual-Doppler radar measurement. J. Appl. Meteor, 15 , 868–878.
Grecu, M., , and W. S. Olson, 2006: Bayesian estimation of precipitation from satellite passive microwave observations using combined radar–radiometer retrievals. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol, 45 , 416–433.
Hou, A. Y., , S. Q. Zhang, , and O. Reale, 2004: Variational continuous assimilation of TMI and SSM/I rain rates: Impact on GEOS-3 hurricane analyses and forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev, 132 , 2094–2109.
Iguchi, T., , T. Kozu, , R. Meneghini, , J. Awaka, , and K. Okamoto, 2000: Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM precipitation radar. J. Appl. Meteor, 39 , 2038–2052.
Johnson, R. H., , and G. S. Young, 1983: Heat and moisture budgets of tropical mesoscale anvil clouds. J. Atmos. Sci, 40 , 2138–2147.
Johnson, R. H., , and P. E. Ciesielski, 2002: Characteristics of the 1998 summer monsoon onset over the northern South China Sea. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 561–578.
Johnson, R. H., , S. L. Alves, , P. E. Ciesielski, , and T. D. Keenan, 2005: Organization of oceanic convection during the onset of the 1998 east Asian summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev, 133 , 131–138.
Krishnamurti, T. N., and Coauthors, 2001: Real-time multianalysis–multimodel superensemble forecasts of precipitation using TRMM and SSM/I products. Mon. Wea. Rev, 129 , 2861–2883.
Kummerow, C., and Coauthors, 2001: The evolution of the Goddard profile algorithm (GPROF) for rainfall estimation from passive microwave sensors. J. Appl. Meteor, 40 , 1801–1820.
Liao, L., , R. Meneghini, , and T. Iguchi, 2001: Comparisons of rain rate and reflectivity factor derived from the TRMM precipitation radar and the WSR-88D over the Melbourne, Florida, site. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 18 , 1959–1974.
Mapes, B. E., , P. E. Ciesielski, , and R. H. Johnson, 2003: Sampling errors in rawinsonde-array budgets. J. Atmos. Sci, 60 , 2697–2714.
Olson, W. S., , C. D. Kummerow, , Y. Hong, , and W-K. Tao, 1999: Atmospheric latent heating distributions in the Tropics derived from passive microwave radiometer measurements. J. Appl. Meteor, 38 , 633–664.
Olson, W. S., , Y. Hong, , C. D. Kummerow, , and J. Turk, 2001: A texture-polarization method for estimating convective/stratiform precipitation area coverage from passive microwave radiometer data. J. Appl. Meteor, 40 , 1577–1591.
Olson, W. S., and Coauthors, 2006: Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part I: Improved method and uncertainties. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol, 45 , 702–720.
Petty, G. W., 1995: Frequencies and characteristics of global oceanic precipitation from shipboard present-weather reports. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 76 , 1593–1616.
Schumacher, C., , and R. A. Houze Jr., 2000: Comparison of radar data from the TRMM satellite and Kwajalein oceanic validation site. J. Appl. Meteor, 39 , 2151–2164.
Shin, D-B., , and C. Kummerow, 2003: Parametric rainfall retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. J. Appl. Meteor, 42 , 1480–1496.
Tao, W-K., and Coauthors, 2001: Retrieved vertical profiles of latent heat release using TRMM rainfall products for February 1998. J. Appl. Meteor, 40 , 957–982.
Wilheit, T. T., 1988: Error analysis for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Tropical Rainfall Measurements, J. S. Theon and N. Fugono, Eds., A. Deepak, 377–385.
Wolff, D. B., , D. A. Marks, , E. Amitai, , D. S. Silberstein, , B. L. Fisher, , A. Tokay, , J. Wang, , and J. L. Pippitt, 2005: Ground validation for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 22 , 365–380.
Yanai, M., , S. Esbensen, , and J-H. Chu, 1973: Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci, 30 , 611–627.
Yang, S., , and E. A. Smith, 1999a: Moisture budget analysis of TOGA COARE area using SSM/I-retrieved latent heating and large-scale Q2 estimates. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol, 16 , 633–655.
Yang, S., , and E. A. Smith, 1999b: Four-dimensional structure of monthly latent heating derived from SSM/I satellite measurements. J. Climate, 12 , 1016–1037.
Yang, S., , and E. A. Smith, 2000: Vertical structure and transient behavior of convective–stratiform heating in TOGA COARE from combined satellite–sounding analysis. J. Appl. Meteor, 39 , 1491–1513.