This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM 0318675. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Blandford, S. M., 1897: Weather types. Weather Forecasting and Weather Types on the North Pacific Slope, B. S. Pague and S. M. Blandford, Eds., Weather Bureau Print, 20–29.
Blewitt, S. E., I. Krick, and J. L. H. Paulhus, 1942: Report on six-day weather types of North America: A co-operative project of the U.S. Weather Bureau and the California Institute of Technology. Meteorology Department, California Institute of Technology, and the U.S. Weather Bureau, 297 pp.
California Institute of Technology, Meteorology Department, 1943: Synoptic Weather Types of North America. California Institute of Technology, 216 pp.
Chen, W. Y., and H. M. van den Dool, 1997: Asymmetric impact of tropical SST anomalies on atmospheric internal variability over the North Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 725–740.
Chen, W. Y., and H. M. van den Dool, 1999: Significant change of extratropical natural variability and potential predictability associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Tellus, 51A , 790–802.
Cheng, X., and J. M. Wallace, 1993: Cluster analysis of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime 500-hPa height field: Spatial patterns. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 2674–2696.
Compo, G. P., P. D. Sardeshmukh, and C. Penland, 2001: Changes of subseasonal variability associated with El Niño. J. Climate, 14 , 3356–3374.
Dole, R. M., and N. D. Gordon, 1983: Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation: Geographical distribution and regional persistence characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 1567–1586.
Elliott, R. D., 1951: Extended-range forecasting by weather types. Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 834–840.
Higgins, R. W., W. Shi, E. Yarosh, and R. Joyce, 2000: Improved United States precipitation quality control system and analysis. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center Atlas 7, 40 pp.
Kimoto, M., and M. Ghil, 1993a: Multiple flow regimes in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Part I: Methodology and hemispheric regimes. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 2625–2644.
Kimoto, M., and M. Ghil, 1993b: Multiple flow regimes in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Part II: Sectorial regimes and preferred transitions. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 2645–2673.
Michelangeli, P-A., R. Vautard, and B. Legras, 1995: Weather regimes: Recurrence and quasi stationarity. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 1237–1256.
Molteni, F., S. Tibaldi, and T. N. Palmer, 1990: Regimes in the wintertime circulation over northern extratropics. I: Observational evidence. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 116 , 31–67.
Monahan, A. H., J. C. Fyfe, and L. Pandolfo, 2003: The vertical structure of wintertime climate regimes of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical atmosphere. J. Climate, 16 , 2005–2021.
Renwick, J. A., and J. M. Wallace, 1996: Relationships between North Pacific wintertime blocking, El Niño, and the PNA pattern. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 2071–2076.
Rex, D. F., 1950: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effect upon regional climate. II. The climatology of blocking action. Tellus, 2 , 275–301.
Robertson, A. W., and M. Ghil, 1999: Large-scale weather regimes and local climate over the western United States. J. Climate, 12 , 1796–1813.
Sheridan, S. C., 2002: The redevelopment of a weather-type classification scheme for North America. Int. J. Climatol., 22 , 51–68.
Smyth, P., K. Ide, and M. Ghil, 1999: Multiple regimes in Northern Hemisphere height fields via mixture model clustering. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 3704–3723.
Straus, D. M., and F. Molteni, 2004: Circulation regimes and SST forcing: Results from large GCM ensembles. J. Climate, 17 , 1641–1656.
Straus, D. M., S. Corti, and F. Molteni, 2007: Circulation regimes: Chaotic variability versus SST-forced predictability. J. Climate, 20 , 2251–2272.
Toth, Z., 1993: Preferred and unpreferred circulation types in the Northern Hemisphere wintertime phase space. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 2868–2888.
Toth, Z., E. Kalnay, S. M. Tracton, R. Wobus, and J. Irwin, 1997: A synoptic evaluation of the NCEP ensemble. Wea. Forecasting, 12 , 140–153.
Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 784–812.
Woodruff, S. D., 2001a: COADS updates including newly digitized data and the blend with the UK Meteorological Office Marine Data Bank. Proc. Int. Workshop on Preparation, Processing, and Use of Historical Marine Meteorological Data, Tokyo, Japan, Japan Meteorological Agency and the Ship and Ocean Foundation, 9–13.
Woodruff, S. D., 2001b: Quality control in recent COADS updates. Proc. Int. Workshop on Preparation, Processing, and Use of Historical Marine Meteorological Data, Tokyo, Japan, Japan Meteorological Agency and the Ship and Ocean Foundation, 49–53.
Wu, Q., and D. M. Straus, 2004: On the existence of hemisphere-wide climate variations. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .D06118, doi:10.1029/2003JD004230.