This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute. We appreciate the efforts of Dr. Alan Hills of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for his assistance in programming with LabVIEW. We also thank Dr. Kirk Clawson and his staff at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Air Resources Laboratory—Field Research Division for their work in the tracer study and Dr. Marty Leach and his colleagues at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for their sonic anemometer data. We thank the community of Oklahoma City for their overwhelming support and collaboration with this field project.
Allwine, K. J., , J. H. Shinn, , G. E. Streit, , K. L. Clawson, , and M. Brown, 2002: Overview of Urban 2000: A multiscale field study of dispersion through an urban environment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 521–536.
Allwine, K. J., , M. J. Leach, , L. W. Stockham, , J. S. Shinn, , R. P. Hosker, , J. F. Bowers, , and J. C. Pace, 2004: Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1.
Barad, M. L., 1958: Project Prairie Grass: A field program in diffusion. Vols. I and II. Geophysics Res. Paper 59, AFCRC-TR-58-235, Air Force Cambridge Reseach Center, Bedford, MA, 439 pp.
Benner, R. L., , and B. Lamb, 1985: A fast response continuous analyzer for halogenated atmospheric tracers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 2 , 582–589.
Briggs, G. A., 1973: Diffusion estimation of small emissions. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory Contribution 79, Oak Ridge, TN, 59 pp.
Britter, R. E., , S. R. Hanna, , G. A. Briggs, , and A. Robins, 2003: Short-range vertical dispersion from a ground level source in a turbulent boundary layer. Atmos. Environ., 37 , 3885–3894.
Calhoun, R., , F. Gouveia, , J. Shinn, , S. Chan, , D. Stevens, , R. Lee, , and J. Leone, 2004: Flow around a complex building: Comparison between experiments and a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 696–710.
Clarke, R. H., , A. J. Dyer, , R. R. Brook, , D. G. Reid, , and A. J. Troup, 1971: The Wangara Experiment: Boundary layer data. Division of Meteorology and Physics Tech. Paper 19, CSIRO, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 350 pp.
Clawson, K. L., and Coauthors, 2005: Joint Urban 2003 (JU03) SF6 atmospheric tracer field tests. NOAA Tech. Memo. OAR ARL-254, 357 pp.
Coirier, W. J., , and A. J. Reich, 2003: Oklahoma City high-resolution dispersion simulation. CFDRC Rep. 8520/1, Huntsville, AL, 23 pp.
Draxler, R. R., 1984: Diffusion and transport experiments. Atmospheric Science and Power Production, D. Randerson, Ed., Tech. Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 367–422.
Guenther, A., , B. Lamb, , and E. Allwine, 1990: Building wake dispersion at an Arctic industrial site: Field tracer observations and plume model evaluations. Atmos. Environ., 24A , 2329–2347.
Hanna, S. R., , G. A. Briggs, , and R. P. Hosker Jr., 1982: Handbook on Atmospheric Diffusion. DOE/TIC-11223, Tech. Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, 102 pp. [NTIS DE8-2002-045.].
McElroy, J. L., , and F. Pooler, 1968: The St. Louis dispersion study. U.S. Public Health Service Rep. AP-53, National Air Pollution Control Administration, 51 pp.
Meroney, R. N., , B. M. Leitl, , S. Rafailidis, , and M. Schatzmann, 1999: Wind-tunnel and numerical modeling of flow and dispersion about several building shapes. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 81 , 333–345.
NWS, cited. 2003: Preliminary local climatological data: Norman, OK. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/oun/climate/get_f6.php?city=okc&month=07&year=2003.].
Rotach, M. W., , S-E. Gryning, , E. Batchvarova, , A. Christen, , and R. Vogt, 2004: Pollutant dispersion close to an urban surface—The BUBBLE tracer experiment. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 87 , 39–56.
Sagrado, A. P. G., , J. van Beeck, , P. Rambaud, , and D. Olivari, 2002: Numerical and experimental modeling of pollutant dispersion in a street canyon. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 90 , 321–339.
Scaperdas, A., , and R. N. Colvile, 1999: Assessing the representativeness of monitoring data from an urban intersection site in central London, UK. Atmos. Environ., 33 , 661–674.
Scire, J. S., , F. W. Lurmann, , A. Bass, , and S. R. Hanna, 1984: User’s guide to the MESOPUFF II model and related processor programs. EPA-600/8-84-013, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 216 pp.
U.S. Census Bureau, cited. 2003: American FactFinder. [Available online at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html.].
Venkatram, A., , V. Isakov, , D. Pankratz, , J. Heumann, , and J. Yuan, 2004: The analysis of data from an urban dispersion experiment. Atmos. Environ., 38 , 3647–3659.