The work described in this paper was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Dugway Proving Ground through a contract with the H. E. Cramer Company, Inc., as well as through the Biological Countermeasures Office in the Department of Homeland Security. The authors also acknowledge the hard work of the other Park Avenue Street canyon team workers and others that contributed to the datasets presented in this work, including the following: P. Ramamurthy, B. Hansen, B. Verhoef, Dr. P. Kastner-Klein, D. Storwold, Dr. F. Gallagher, Dr. H. J. S. Fernando, Dr. M. Princevac, Dr. J. Allwine, and Dr. S. Grimmond. In addition, the authors are very grateful to the local government workers, business owners and workers, and citizens of Oklahoma City who made the JU2003 field experiment possible.
Allwine, K. J., , J. H. Shinn, , G. E. Streit, , K. L. Clawson, , and M. Brown, 2002: Overview of Urban 2000: A multiscale field study of dispersion through an urban environment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 521–536.
Allwine, K. J., , M. J. Leach, , L. W. Stockham, , J. S. Shinn, , R. P. Hosker, , J. F. Bowers, , and J. C. Pace, 2004: Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1.
Britter, R. E., , and J. C. R. Hunt, 1979: Velocity measurements and order of magnitude estimates of the flow between two buildings in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer. J. Ind. Aerodyn., 4 , 165–182.
Brown, M. J., and Coauthors, 2004: Joint Urban 2003 Street Canyon Experiment. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.3.
Burian, S., , W. Han, , and M. Brown, 2005: Morphological analyses using 3D building databases: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Los Alamos National Laboratory Rep. LA-UR-05-1821, 64 pp.
Businger, J. A., , J. C. Wyngaard, , Y. Izumi, , and E. F. Bradley, 1971: Flux profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 181–189.
Cermak, J. E., 1996: Thermal effects on flow and dispersion over urban areas: Capabilities for prediction by physical modeling. Atmos. Environ., 30 , 393–401.
Chang, C. H., , and R. N. Meroney, 2001: Numerical and physical modeling of bluff body and dispersion in urban street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 89 , 1325–1334.
Chang, C. H., , and R. N. Meroney, 2003: Concentration and flow distributions in urban street canyons: Wind tunnel and computational data. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 91 , 1141–1154.
Dezso-Weidinger, G., , A. Stitou, , J. van Beeck, , and M. L. Rietmuller, 2003: Measurement of the turbulent mass flux with PTV in a street canyon. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 91 , 1117–1131.
Eliasson, I., , B. Offerle, , C. S. B. Grimmond, , and S. Lindqvist, 2006: Wind field and turbulence statistics in an urban street canyon. Atmos. Environ., 40 , 1–16.
Farell, C., , and A. K. S. Iyengar, 1999: Experiments on the wind tunnel simulation of atmospheric boundary layers. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 79 , 11–35.
Feigenwinter, C., , R. Vogt, , and E. Parlow, 1999: Vertical structure of selected turbulence characteristics above an urban canopy. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 62 , 51–63.
Fernando, H. J. S., , S-M. Lee, , J. Anderson, , M. Princevac, , E. Pardyjak, , and S. Grossman-Clarke, 2001: Urban fluid mechanics: Air circulation and contaminant dispersion in cities. Environ. Fluid Mech., 1 , 107–164.
Gash, J. H. C., , and A. J. Dolman, 2003: Sonic anemometer (co)sine response and flux measurement I. The potential for (co)sine error to affect sonic anemometer-based flux measurements. Agric. For. Meteor., 119 , 195–207.
Grimmond, C. S. B., , and T. R. Oke, 1999: Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 1262–1292.
Hosker, R. P., 1987: The effects of buildings on local dispersion. Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer, M. L. Kramer, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95–160.
Jeong, S. J., , and M. J. Andrews, 2002: Application of the k–ε turbulence model to the high Reynolds number skimming flow field of an urban street canyon. Atmos. Environ., 36 , 1137–1145.
Kastner-Klein, P., , and M. W. Rotach, 2004: Mean flow and turbulence characteristics in an urban roughness sublayer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 111 , 55–84.
Kastner-Klein, P., , E. Fedorovich, , and M. W. Rotach, 2001: A wind tunnel study of organized and turbulent air motions in urban street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 89 , 849–861.
Kim, J-J., , and J-J. Baik, 2003: Effects of inflow turbulence intensity on flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 91 , 309–329.
Longley, I. D., , M. W. Gallagher, , J. R. Dorsey, , M. Flynn, , and J. F. Barlow, 2004: Short-term measurements of airflow and turbulence in two street canyons in Manchester. Atmos. Environ., 38 , 69–79.
Louka, P., , S. E. Belcher, , and R. G. Harrison, 2000: Coupling between air flow in streets and the well-developed boundary layer aloft. Atmos. Environ., 34 , 2613–2621.
MacDonald, R. W., , S. Carter Schofield, , and P. R. Slawson, 2002: Physical modeling of urban roughness using arrays of regular roughness elements. Water Air Soil Pollut. Focus, 2 , 541–554.
Monin, A. S., , and A. M. Obukhov, 1954: Basic laws of mixing in the ground layer of the atmosphere. Tr. Geophys. Inst. ANSSSR, 51 , 24. 163–187.
Nakamura, Y., , and T. R. Oke, 1988: Wind, temperature and stability conditions in an east–west oriented urban canyon. Atmos. Environ., 22 , 2691–2700.
Nelson, M. A., , M. J. Brown, , E. R. Pardyjak, , and J. C. Klewicki, 2004: Turbulence within and above real and artificial urban canopies. Preprints, Fifth Conf. on Urban Environment, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3.7.
Nelson, M. A., , E. R. Pardyjak, , M. J. Brown, , and J. C. Klewicki, 2007: Properties of the wind field within the Oklahoma City Park Avenue street canyon. Part II: Spectra, cospectra, and quadrant analyses. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 2055–2073.
Rafailidis, S., 1997: Influence of building areal density and roof shape on the wind characteristics above a town. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 85 , 255–271.
Ramamurthy, P., , E. R. Pardyjak, , and J. C. Klewicki, 2007: Observations of the effects of atmospheric stability on turbulence statistics deep within an urban street canyon. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 2074–2085.
Richards, P. J., , S. Fong, , and R. P. Hoxey, 1997: Anisotropic turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 69–71 , 903–913.
Rooney, G. G., 2001: Comparison of upwind land use and roughness length measured in the urban boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 100 , 469–486.
Rotach, M. W., 1993b: Turbulence close to a rough urban surface Part II: Variances and gradients. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 66 , 75–92.
Roth, M., 1993: Turbulent transfer relationships over an urban surface, II: Integral statistics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 , 1105–1120.
Roth, M., , and T. R. Oke, 1993: Turbulent transfer relationships over an urban surface, I: Spectral characteristics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 , 1071–1104.
Snyder, W. H., 1981: Guideline for fluid modeling of atmospheric diffusion. Environmental Protection Agency Rep. EPA-600/8-81-009, Research Triangle Park, NC, 200 pp.
Snyder, W. H., 1985: Fluid modeling of pollutant transport and diffusion in stably stratified flows over complex terrain. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 17 , 239–266.
Uehara, K., , S. Wakamatsu, , and R. Ooka, 2003: Studies on critical Reynolds number indices for wind-tunnel experiments on flow within urban areas. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 107 , 353–370.
van der Mollen, M. K., , J. H. C. Gash, , and J. A. Elbers, 2004: Sonic anemometer (co)sine response and flux measurement II. The effect of introducing an angle of attack dependent calibration. Agric. For. Meteor., 122 , 95–109.