The research presented here was performed under the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and under Agreement DW13921548; J. S. Irwin collaborated in the research described here under Contract NOAA Order EA133R04SE1097. This work constitutes a contribution to the NOAA Air Quality Program. Although it has been reviewed by EPA and NOAA and approved for publication, it does not necessarily reflect their policies or views.
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2005: Standard guide for statistical evaluation of atmospheric dispersion model performance (D 6589). American Society for Testing and Materials, 17 pp. [Available from 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 and online at http://www.astm.org.].
Cassiani, M., , P. Franzese, , and U. Giostra, 2005a: Application of a mixing model to dispersion in atmospheric turbulence. Part I: Development of the model and application to homogeneous turbulence and neutral boundary layer. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 1457–1469.
Cassiani, M., , P. Franzese, , and U. Giostra, 2005b: A PDF micromixing model of dispersion for atmospheric flow. Part II: Application to convective boundary layer. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 1471–1479.
Dabberdt, W. F., , and E. Miller, 2000: Uncertainty, ensembles, and air quality dispersion modeling: Applications and challenges. Atmos. Environ., 34 , 4667–4673.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2003: AERMOD: Latest features and evaluation results. Tech Rep. EPA-454/R-03-003, 42 pp. [Available from Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Emissions Monitoring and Analysis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 and online at http://www.epa.gov/scram001/7thconf/aermod/aermod_mep.pdf.].
Finkelstein, P. L., , J. C. Kaimal, , J. E. Gaynor, , M. E. Graves, , and T. J. Lockhart, 1986: Comparison of wind monitoring systems. Part I: In situ sensors. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 583–593.
Fuquay, J., , C. L. Simpson, , and W. T. Hinds, 1964: Prediction of environmental exposures from sources near the ground based on Hanford experimental data. J. Appl. Meteor., 3 , 761–770.
Hanna, S. R., , and R. Yang, 2001: Evaluations of mesoscale model’s simulations of near-surface winds, temperature gradients, and mixing depths. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 1095–1104.
Harris, J. M., , R. R. Draxler, , and S. J. Oltmans, 2005: Trajectory model sensitivity to differences in input data and vertical transport method. J. Geophys. Res., 110 .D14109, doi:10.1029/2004JD005750.
Irwin, J. S., 1984: Site-to-site variation in performance of dispersion parameter estimation schemes. Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application III, C. De Wispelaere, Ed., Plenum, 605–617.
Irwin, J. S., , and M. E. Smith, 1984: Potentially useful additions to the rural model performance evaluation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 65 , 559–568.
Irwin, J. S., , and R. F. Lee, 1996: Comparative evaluation of two air quality models: Within-regime evaluation statistic. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 8 , 346–355.
Irwin, J. S., , and S. R. Hanna, 2005: Characterizing uncertainty in plume dispersion models. Int. J. Environ. Pollut., 25 , 6–24.
Irwin, J. S., , S. T. Rao, , W. B. Petersen, , and D. B. Turner, 1987: Relating error bounds for maximum concentration predictions to diffusion meteorology uncertainty. Atmos. Environ., 21 , 1927–1937.
Jones, A. R., , and D. J. Thomson, 2006: Simulation of time series of concentration fluctuations in atmospheric dispersion using a correlation-distortion technique. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 118 , 25–54.
Lockhart, T. J., , and J. S. Irwin, 1980: Methods for calculating the “representativeness” of data. Proc. Symp. on Intermediate Range Atmospheric Transport Processes and Technology Assessment, Gatlinburg, TN, 169–176. [NTIS CONF-801064.].
Luhar, A. K., , and B. L. Sawford, 2005a: Micromixing modelling of concentration fluctuations in inhomogeneous turbulence in the convective boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 114 , 1–30.
Luhar, A. K., , and B. L. Sawford, 2005b: Micromixing modelling of mean and fluctuating scalar fields in the convective boundary layer. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 6673–6685.
Petersen, W. B., , and L. G. Lavdas, 1986: INPUFF 2.0–A multiple source Gaussian puff dispersion algorithm user’s guide. Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600-8-86-024, 105 pp.
Ramsdell, J. V., , and W. T. Hinds, 1971: Concentration fluctuations and peak-to-mean concentration rations in plumes from a ground-level continuous point source. Atmos. Environ., 5 , 483–495.
Stohl, A., 1998: Computation, accuracy and applications of trajectories–A review and bibliography. Atmos. Environ., 32 , 947–966.
Sykes, R. I., , W. S. Lewellen, , and S. F. Parker, 1984: A turbulent transport model for concentration fluctuations and fluxes. J. Fluid Mech., 139 , 193–218.
Sykes, R. I., , W. S. Lewellen, , S. F. Parker, , and D. S. Henn, 1988: A hierarchy of dynamic plume models incorporating uncertainty. Vol. 4: Second-order closure integrated puff. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) EA-6095, Project 1616-28, 180 pp. [Available from R. I. Sykes, ARAP/Titan, 50 Washington Rd., P.O. Box 2229, Princeton, NJ 08543-2229.].
Sykes, R. I., , S. F. Parker, , D. S. Henn, , and W. S. Lewellen, 1993: Numerical simulation of ANATEX tracer data using a turbulence closure model for long-range dispersion. J. Appl. Meteor., 32 , 929–947.
Sykes, R. I., , S. F. Parker, , D. S. Henn, , C. P. Cerasoli, , and L. P. Santos, 1998: PC-SCIPUFF version 1.2PD, technical documentation. ARAP Rep. 718, 180 pp. [Available from Titan Research & Technology Division, ARAP Group, Titan Corporation, P.O. Box 2229, Princeton, NJ 08543-2229 and online at http://www.titan.com/products-services/336/download_scipuff.html.].
Venkatram, A., 1979: The expected deviation of observed concentrations from predicted ensemble means. Atmos. Environ., 13 , 1547–1549.
Venkatram, A., 1988: Topics in applied modeling. Lectures on Air Pollution Modeling, A. Venkatram and J. C. Wyngaard, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 267–324.
Weil, J. C., , R. I. Sykes, , and A. Venkatram, 1992: Evaluating air quality models: Review and outlook. J. Appl. Meteor., 31 , 1121–1145.
Weil, J. C., , W. H. Snyder, , R. E. Lawson Jr., , and M. S. Shipman, 2002: Experiments on buoyant plume dispersion in a laboratory convection tank. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 102 , 367–414.