The authors thank Eric Zalewsky and John Irwin for their assistance with data analysis. The authors are grateful to Roland Draxler for his helpful comments on the manuscript. This research was performed within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Agreement DW13921548, and constitutes a contribution to the NOAA Air Quality Program. Although it has been reviewed and approved for publication by EPA and NOAA, it does not necessarily reflect their views or policies.
Brankov, E., S. T. Rao, and P. S. Porter, 1998: A trajectory-clustering-correlation methodology for examining the long-range transport of air pollutants. Atmos. Environ., 32 , 1525–1534.
Chan, D., S. T. Rao, I. G. Zurbenko, and P. S. Porter, 2000: Linking changes in ozone to changes in emissions and meteorology. Air Pollution VIII, W. S. Longhurst, C. A. Brebbia, and H. Power, Eds., Vol. 8, Advances in Air Pollution, WIT Press, 653–675.
Cox, W. M., and S. H. Chu, 1993: Meteorologically adjusted ozone trends in urban areas: A probabilistic approach. Atmos. Environ., 27B , 425–434.
Eder, B. K., J. M. Davis, and P. Bloomfield, 1993: A characterization of the spatio-temporal variability of non-urban ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Atmos. Environ., 27A , 2645–2668.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2005: Evaluating ozone control programs in the eastern United States: Focus on the NOx budget-trading program. Rep. EPA454-K-05-001, 41 pp. [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/air/airtrends/2005/ozonenbp/.].
Flaum, J. B., S. T. Rao, and I. G. Zurbenko, 1996: Moderating the influence of meteorological conditions on ambient ozone concentrations. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 46 , 35–46.
Hogrefe, C., S. T. Rao, I. G. Zurbenko, and P. S. Porter, 2000: Interpreting the information in ozone observations and model predictions relevant to regulatory policies in the eastern United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 2083–2106.
Ibarra-Berastegi, G., I. Madariaga, A. Elas, E. Agirre, and J. Uria, 2001: Long-term changes of ozone and traffic in Bilbao. Atmos. Environ., 35 , 5581–5592.
Kuebler, J., H. van den Bergh, and A. G. Russell, 2001: Long-term trends of primary and secondary pollutant concentrations in Switzerland and their response to emission controls and economic changes. Atmos. Environ., 35 , 1351–1363.
Milanchus, M., S. T. Rao, and I. G. Zurbenko, 1998: Evaluating the effectiveness of ozone management efforts in the presence of meteorological variability. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 48 , 201–215.
Ozone Transport Assessment Group, 1997: Vol. I: Executive summary. Final Report. [Available online at http://capita.wustl.edu/otag/Reports/.].
Rao, S. T., 1993: Is a NOx-focused control strategy the solution to reducing urban ozone levels in the northeastern United States? J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 43 , 1563–1565.
Rao, S. T., and I. G. Zurbenko, 1994: Detecting and tracking changes in ozone air quality. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 44 , 1089–1092.
Rao, S. T., G. Sistla, W. Hao, K. John, and J. Biswas, 1996: On the assessment of ozone control policies for the northeastern United States. Air Pollution Modeling and Its Applications XI, S. E. Gryning and F. Scheirmeir, Eds., NATO—Challenges of Modern Society Series, Vol. 21, Plenum, 41–49.
Rao, S. T., I. G. Zurbenko, R. Neagu, P. S. Porter, J. Y. Ku, and R. F. Henry, 1997: Space and time scales in ambient ozone data. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2153–2166.
Rao, S. T., J. Y. Ku, S. Berman, K. Zhang, and H. Mao, 2003: Summertime characteristics of the planetary boundary layer over the eastern United States and relationships to ambient ozone levels. Pure Appl. Geophys., 160 , 21–55.
Sillman, S., J. A. Logan, and S. C. Wofsy, 1990: The sensitivity of ozone to nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in regional ozone episodes. J. Geophys. Res., 95 , 1837–1851.
Streets, D. G., Y-S. Chang, M. Tompkins, Y. S. Ghim, and L. R. Carter, 2001: Efficient regional ozone control strategies for the eastern United States. J. Environ. Manage., 61 , 345–365.
Vukovich, F. M., 1995: Regional-scale boundary layer ozone variations in the eastern United States and their association with meteorological variations. Atmos. Environ., 29 , 2259–2273.
Vukovich, F. M., 1997: Time scales of surface ozone variations in the regional, non urban environment. Atmos. Environ., 31 , 1513–1530.
Wise, E. K., and A. C. Comrie, 2005: Meteorologically-adjusted urban air quality trends in the southwestern United States. Atmos. Environ., 39 , 2969–2980.
Zalewsky, E. E., 1995: Trends in temperature-adjusted ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. M.S. thesis, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, State University of New York at Albany, 67 pp.