The research presented here was performed under the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under Agreement Number DW13921548. This work constitutes a contribution to the NOAA Air Quality Program. Although it has been reviewed by EPA and NOAA and approved for publication, it does not necessarily reflect their policies or views. The authors thank Mr. Al Cimorelli of the U.S. EPA Region 3 for helpful discussions and valuable comments.
Byun, D. W., and K. Schere, 2006: Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Appl. Mech. Rev., 59 , 51–77.
Ching, J., T. Pierce, T. Palma, W. Hutzell, R. Tang, A. Cimorelli, and J. Herwehe, 2004: Linking air toxic concentrations from CMAQ to the HAPEM5 exposure model at neighborhood scales for the Philadelphia area. Preprints, Fifth Symp. on the Urban Environment, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, J4.4.
Ching, J., J. Herwehe, and J. Swall, 2006a: On joint deterministic grid modeling and sub grid variability conceptual framework for model evaluation. Atmos. Environ., 40 , 4936–4945.
Ching, J., V. Isakov, M. Majeed, and J. S. Irwin, 2006b: An approach for incorporating sub-grid variability information into air quality. Preprints, 14th Joint Conf. on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, Atlanta, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, 2.1.
Cimorelli, A. J., and Coauthors, 2005: AERMOD: A dispersion model for industrial source applications. Part I: General model formulation and boundary layer characterization. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 682–693.
Georgopoulos, P. G., and P. J. Lioy, 2006: From theoretical aspects of human exposure and dose assessment to computational model implementation: The Modeling Environment for Total Risk studies (MENTOR). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 9B , 457–483.
Graham, S. E., and J. M. Burke, 2003: Microenvironmental exposures to benzene: A critical review and probabilistic model input distribution development. Environmental Protection Agency Rep. EPA/600/J-03/008, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC, 54 pp.
Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1995: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398, 122 pp.
Herwehe, J. A., 2000: A numerical study of the effects of large eddies on the trace gas measurements and photochemistry in the convective boundary layer. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 242 pp. [Available from University of Alabama in Huntsville, Atmospheric Science Department, Huntsville, AL 35899.].
Herwehe, J. A., J. K. S. Ching, and J. Swall, 2004: Quantifying subgrid pollutant variability in Eulerian air quality models. Preprints, 13th Conf. on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology with the Air & Waste Management Association, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, 7.5.
Isakov, V., and A. Venkatram, 2006: Resolving neighborhood scale in air toxics modeling: A case study in Wilmington, California. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 56 , 559–568.
Jerrett, M., A. Arain, P. Kanaroglou, B. Becjerman, D. Potoglou, T. Sahsuvaroglu, J. Morrison, and C. Giovis, 2005: A review and evaluation of intraurban air pollution exposure models. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol., 15 , 185–204.
Karamchandani, P., C. Seigneur, K. Vijayaraghavan, and S-Y. Wu, 2002: Development and application of a state-of-the-science plume-in-grid model. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4403, doi:10.1029/2002JD002123.
Luecken, D. J., W. T. Hutzell, and G. J. Gipson, 2006: Development and analysis of air quality modeling simulations for hazardous air pollutants. Atmos. Environ., 40 , 5087–5096.
Lumley, J. L., and H. A. Panofsky, 1964: The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence. Monographs and Texts in Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 12, Interscience, 239 pp.
Miao, J. F., D. Chen, and K. Wyser, 2006: Modelling subgrid scale dry deposition velocity of O3 over the Swedish west coast with MM5-PX model. Atmos. Environ., 40 , 415–429.
Odman, M. T., and A. G. Russell, 1991: Multiscale modeling of pollutant transport and chemistry. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 7363–7370.
Touma, J. S., V. Isakov, J. Ching, and C. Seigneur, 2006: Air quality modeling of hazardous pollutants: Current status and future directions. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 56 , 547–558.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995: User’s guide for the Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) dispersion models Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Rep. EPA-454/B-95-003b, Vol. 2, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, 120 pp.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000: User’s guide for the Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN, version 1.1) Model. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Rep. EPA-454/R-00-017, 108 pp.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, cited. 2004: 1999 national emission inventory documentation and data—Final version 3.0. [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/net/.].
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, cited. 2005: Human exposure modeling—Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM). [Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/fera/human_hapem.html.].
Weijers, E. P., A. Y. Khlystov, G. P. A. Kos, and J. W. Erisman, 2004: Variability of particulate matter concentrations along roads and motorways determined by a moving measurement unit. Atmos. Environ., 38 , 2993–3002.