The research was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Applied Research Center (NOAA-ARC) through Grant NA16GP1365, Subcontract FSU/UF 02081352-1-1, and was developed under the auspices of the Southeast Climate Consortium; and by NOAA Grant/Cooperative Agreement NA67GP0299. The authors thank A. Barnston, D. DeWitt, M. Bell, O. Ndiaye, and A. Mishra from the IRI, and J. Marois from UF for their support during this study. The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their observations and advice, which helped us to improve the present paper. The retrospective forecast integration data were made possible by a computing grant from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Climate Simulation Laboratory (CSL) to the IRI. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies.
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