We acknowledge Atmospheric, Meteorological, and Environmental Technologies (ATMET) for providing the source code for the RAMS model. We are grateful for the support provided by Chongqing University. This paper was financially supported by a grant-in-aid for scientific research (A) by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Bureau of Environment, cited. 2007: The environment of Tokyo 2006. Tokyo Metropolitan Government Environmental White Paper 2006. [Available online at https://www2.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/kouhou/env/eng_2006/index.html.].
Chandler, T. J., 1965: : The Climate of London. Hutchinson, 292 pp.
Chongqing Municipal Bureau of Statistics, cited. 2007: Chongqing Statistical Yearbook 2006. [Available online at http://www.cqtj.gov.cn/tjnj/2006/yearbook/indexe.htm.].
Dyer, A. J., , and B. B. Hicks, 1970: Flux gradient relationship in the constant flux layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96 , 715–721.
Environmental Protection Agency, cited. 2005: Global warming—Climate. Web page of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Available online at http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/climate.html.].
Hadano, K., , T. Izumi, , D. Nakayama, , and H. Matsuyama, 2004: The spatial representativity of temperature data of AMeDAS as revealed by the variogram. (in Japanese). Theor. Appl. GIS, 12 , 35–46.
Ichinose, T., , K. Shimodozono, , and K. Hanaki, 1999: Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmos. Environ., 33 , 3897–3909.
Kondo, H., , Y. Kikegawa, , Y. Genchi, , and S. Yamamoto, 1999: Heating in the urban canopy by anthropogenic heat use. Proc. 15th Int. Congress of Biometeorology and International Conf. on Urban Climatology, Sydney, NSW, Australia, International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO), CD-ROM, 249.
Kondo, J., , O. Kanechika, , and N. Yasuda, 1978: Heat and momentum transfers under strong stability in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 1012–1021.
Kusaka, H., , and F. Kimura, 2004a: Coupling a single-layer urban canopy model with a simple atmospheric model: Impact on urban heat island simulation for an idealized case. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 82 , 67–80.
Kusaka, H., , and F. Kimura, 2004b: Thermal effects of urban canyon structure on the nocturnal heat island: Numerical experiment using a mesoscale model coupled with an urban canopy model. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 1899–1910.
Kusaka, H., , H. Kondo, , Y. Kikegawa, , and F. Kimura, 2001: A simple single-layer urban canopy model for atmospheric models: Comparison with multi-layer and slab models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 101 , 329–358.
Martilli, A., , A. Clappier, , and M. W. Rotach, 2002: An urban surface exchange parameterization for mesoscale models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 104 , 261–304.
Ministry of the Environment, cited. 2004: Outline of the policy framework to reduce urban heat island effects. Inter-Ministry Coordination Committee to Mitigate Urban Heat Island, Ministry of the Environment, Japan. [Available online at http://www.env.go.jp/en/air/heat/heatisland.pdf.].
Tremback, C. J., , J. Powell, , W. R. Cotton, , and R. A. Pielke, 1987: The forward-in-time upstream advection scheme: Extension to higher orders. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 540–555.
Walko, R. L., and Coauthors, 2000: Coupled atmosphere–biophysics–hydrology models for environmental modeling. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 931–944.