The three anonymous reviewers are appreciated for their valuable remarks and suggestions about this paper. The authors are also very grateful to Drs. Zavisa Janjic, Mike Ek, and Yucheng Song of NCEP/EMC for their EMC internal reviews of this work, to Dr. Rod Brown (retired) of the Met Office for his comments and suggestions, and to Dr. Stephen Lord, director of NCEP/EMC, for his support. We thank Dr. Robert Tardif of NCAR for his provision of the observational fog data. The site data of the New York 2003 fog event used in this study were collected from the equipment and facilities that were installed, operated, and funded by the FAA Aviation Weather Research Program. It is our pleasure to acknowledge Ms. Mary Hart of NCEP/EMC, who reviewed and edited early drafts of this paper.
Ballard, S. P., , B. W. Golding, , and R. N. B. Smith, 1991: Mesoscale experimental forecasts of the Haar of northeast Scotland. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 2107–2123.
Bergot, T., , and D. Guedalia, 1994: Numerical forecasting of radiation fog. Part I: Numerical model and sensitivity tests. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 1218–1230.
Bergot, T., , D. Carrer, , J. Noilhan, , and P. Bougeault, 2005: Improved site-specific numerical prediction of fog and low clouds: A feasibility study. Wea. Forecasting, 20 , 627–646.
Blackadar, A. K., , and H. Tennekes, 1968: Asymptotic similarity in neutral barotropic planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 25 , 1015–1020.
Bott, A., , U. Sievers, , and W. Zdunkowski, 1990: A radiation fog model with a detailed treatment of the interaction between radiative transfer and fog microphysics. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 2153–2166.
Busch, N. E., 1973: On the mechanics of atmospheric turbulence. Workshop on Micrometeorology, D. A. Haugen, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–28.
Businger, J. A., , J. C. Wyngaard, , Y. Izumi, , and E. F. Bradley, 1971: Flux profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 181–189.
Choularton, T. W., , G. Fullarton, , J. Latham, , C. S. Mill, , M. H. Smith, , and I. M. Stromberg, 1981: A field study of radiation fog in Meppen, West Germany. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 107 , 381–394.
Croft, P. J., , R. L. Pfost, , J. M. Medlin, , and G. A. Johnson, 1997: Fog forecasting for the southern region: A conceptual model approach. Wea. Forecasting, 12 , 545–556.
Girard, E., , and J-P. Blanchet, 2001: Simulation of Arctic diamond dust, ice fog, and thin stratus using an explicit aerosol–cloud–radiation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 1199–1221.
Guedalia, D., , and T. Bergot, 1994: Numerical forecasting of radiation fog. Part II: A comparison of model simulation with several observed fog events. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 1231–1246.
Gultepe, I., , M. D. Müller, , and Z. Boybeyi, 2006: A new visibility parameterization for warm-fog applications in numerical weather prediction models. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45 , 1469–1480.
Jiusto, J. E., 1981: Fog structure. Clouds: Their Formation, Optical Properties and Effects, P. V. Hobbs and A. Deepak, Eds., Academic Press, 187–239.
Kunkel, B. A., 1984: Parameterization of droplet terminal velocity and extinction coefficient in fog models. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23 , 34–41.
Mellor, G. L., , and T. Yamada, 1974: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 1791–1806.
Meyer, M. B., , G. G. Lala, , and J. E. Jiusto, 1986: FOG-82: A cooperative field study of radiation fog. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67 , 825–832.
Müller, M. D., , M. Masbou, , A. Bott, , and Z. Janjic, 2005: Fog prediction in a 3D model with parameterized microphysics. Proc. Symp. on Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting, Toulouse, France, World Weather Research Programme, 6.26. [Available online at http://www.meteo.fr/cic/wsn05/DVD/index.html.].
Oliver, D. A., , W. S. Lewellen, , and G. G. Williamson, 1978: The interaction between turbulent and radiative transport in the development of fog and low-level stratus. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 301–316.
Pagowski, M., , I. Gultepe, , and P. King, 2004: Analysis and modeling of an extremely dense fog event in southern Ontario. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 3–16.
Pickering, K. E., , and J. E. Jiusto, 1978: Observations of the relationship between dew and radiation fog. J. Geophys. Res., 83 , 2430–2436.
Pilié, R. J., , E. J. Mack, , W. C. Kocmond, , W. J. Eadie, , and C. W. Rogers, 1975: The life cycle of valley fog. Part II: Fog microphysics. J. Appl. Meteor., 14 , 347–363.
Pinnick, R. G., , D. L. Hoihjelle, , G. Fernandez, , E. B. Stenmark, , J. D. Lindberg, , G. B. Hoidale, , and S. G. Jennings, 1978: Vertical structure in atmospheric fog and haze and its effects on visible and infrared extinction. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 2020–2032.
Prandtl, L., 1904: Über Flüssigkeitsbewegung bei sehr kleiner Reibung (On fluid motion with very small friction). Vehr. III Int. Math. Kongr., Heidelburg, 484–491.
Roach, W. T., , R. Brown, , S. J. Caughey, , J. A. Garland, , and C. J. Readings, 1976: The physics of radiation fog. I: A field study. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102 , 313–333.
Stoelinga, M. T., , and T. T. Warner, 1999: Nonhydrostatic, mesobeta-scale model simulations of cloud ceiling and visibility for an East Coast winter precipitation event. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 385–404.
Tardif, R., 2004a: Characterizing fog occurrences in the northeastern United States using historical data. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5.1. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/101782.pdf.].
Tardif, R., , J. A. Cole, , P. H. Herzegh, , S. D. Landoit, , R. M. Rasmussen, , and M. L. Tryhane, 2004b: First observations of fog and low ceiling environments at the FAA northeast ceiling and visibility field site. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 10.5. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/81649.pdf.].
Turton, J. D., , and R. Brown, 1987: A comparison of a numerical model of radiation fog with detailed observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113 , 37–54.
Welch, R. M., , M. G. Ravichandran, , and S. K. Cox, 1986: Prediction of quasi-periodic oscillations in radiation fogs. Part I: Comparison of simple similarity approaches. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 633–651.
Westcott, N., 2004: Environmental conditions associated with dense fog in Illinois. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P10.4. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/81513.pdf.].
Zdunkowski, W. G., , and A. E. Barr, 1972: A radiative-conductive model for the prediction of radiation fog. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 3 , 152–177.
Zhou, B., 2006: Asymptotic solution of liquid water content equation at equilibrium state of radiation fog. NCEP Office Note 450, 41 pp.
Zhou, B., , J. Du, , B. Ferrier, , J. McQueen, , and G. DiMego, 2007: Numerical forecast of fog—Central solutions. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Weather Analysis and Forecasting and 18th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Park City, UT, Amer. Meteor. Soc. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/123669.pdf.].