We thank Jeremy Rishel for his assistance with CALMET operations. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security through the Science and Technology Directorate, Office of Systems Engineering and Development under a Related Services Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract DE-AC05-76FL01830. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.
Allwine, K. J., , M. J. Leach, , L. W. Stockham, , J. H. Shinn, , R. P. Hosker, , J. F. Bowers, , and J. Pace, 2004: Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting and Forecasting in the Urban Zone, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/74349.pdf.].
Brown, R. A., , V. T. Wood, , and D. Sirmans, 2000: Improved WSR-88D scanning strategies for convective storms. Wea. Forecasting, 15 , 208–220.
Browning, K. A., , and R. Wexler, 1968: The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using Doppler radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 7 , 105–113.
Crook, N. A., , and J. Sun, 2004: Analysis and forecasting of the low-level wind during the Sydney 2000 Forecast Demonstration Project. Wea. Forecasting, 19 , 151–167.
Crum, T., , and R. L. Alberty, 1993: The WSR-88D and the WSR-88D Operational Support Facility. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74 , 1669–1687.
Gong, J., , L. Wang, , and Q. Xu, 2003: A three-step dealiasing method for Doppler velocity data quality control. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 20 , 1738–1748.
Horel, J., and Coauthors, 2002: Mesowest: Cooperative mesonets in the western United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 211–225.
Kelleher, K. E., and Coauthors, 2007: Project CRAFT: A real-time delivery system for NEXRAD level II data via the Internet. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 1045–1057.
Liu, S., , Q. Xu, , and P. Zhang, 2005: Quality control of Doppler velocities contaminated by migrating birds. Part II: Bayes identification and probability tests. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22 , 1114–1121.
Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology Services and Supporting Research, 1998: U.S. wind profilers: A review. D. W. Beran and T. L. Wilfong, Eds., Report FCM-R14-1998, 57 pp.
Scire, J. S., , F. R. Robe, , M. E. Fernau, , E. M. Insley, , and R. J. Yamartino, 1997: A user’s guide for the CALMET meteorological model (version 5). Earth Tech, Inc., 332 pp.
Scire, J. S., , D. G. Strimaitis, , and R. J. Yamartino, 2000: A user’s guide for the CALPUFF dispersion model (version 5). Earth Tech, Inc., 521 pp.
Sun, J., , and N. A. Crook, 1994: Wind and thermodynamic retrieval from single-Doppler measurements of a gust front observed during Phoenix-II. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 1075–1091.
Sun, J., , and N. A. Crook, 1998: Dynamical and microphysical retrieval from Doppler radar observations using a cloud model and its adjoint. Part II: Retrieval experiments of an observed Florida convective storm. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 835–852.
Sun, J., , D. Flicker, , and D. K. Lilly, 1991: Recovery of three-dimensional wind and temperature from simulated single-Doppler radar data. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 876–890.
Warner, T., and Coauthors, 2007: The Pentagon shield field program: Toward critical infrastructure protection. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 167–176.
Weber, B. L., , D. B. Wuertz, , D. C. Welsh, , and R. McPeek, 1993: Quality controls for profiler measurements of winds and RASS temperatures. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10 , 452–464.
Xu, Q., , and J. Gong, 2003: Background error covariance function for Doppler radar radial-wind analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 1703–1720.
Xu, Q., , S. Liu, , and M. Xue, 2006: Background error covariance functions for vector wind analyses using Doppler radar radial-velocity observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132 , 2887–2904.
Xu, Q., , K. Nai, , and L. Wei, 2007: An innovation method for estimating radar radial-velocity observation error and background wind error covariances. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133 , 407–415.
Zhang, P., , S. Liu, , and Q. Xu, 2005: Quality control of Doppler velocities contaminated by migrating birds. Part I: Feature extraction and quality control parameters. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22 , 1105–1113.