This research was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grants 0938401 and 0837860. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The simulations were performed partially on supercomputer BlueFern, managed and operated by the High Performance Computing Centre at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, and partially on Bluefire, managed and operated by the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. The authors thank Mike Kiefer, Xindi Bian, Jay Charney, Warren Heilman, Sebastian Hoch, John Horel, and Dave Whiteman for useful discussions. The authors also acknowledge the time and professional dedication that the anonymous reviewers put in to refine this research.
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